Showing posts with label HEALTH EDUCATION. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HEALTH EDUCATION. Show all posts

Bleeding: Definition, Types, And Treatment

Bleeding also known as HAEMORRHAGE is the escape of blood from the damaged blood vessels. Bleeding often occur after wound has been sustained. Depending on whether the wound sustained is open or closed, bleeding can occur either internally or externally.
Bleeding Picture

TYPES OF BLEEDING
Depending on the blood vessel that is damaged, bleeding can either be arterial, venous or capillary.
ARTERIAL BLEEDING: This is a type of bleeding that occurs as a result of damage to the arteries, such bleeding is characterized by a bright red coloured blood which jets out from the spot of injuries. This blood is oxygen-rich i.e. it contains oxygen.
VENOUS BLEEDING: This type of bleeding results from damage to the veins; it is characterized by a dark red coloured blood which flows out from the spot of injury. This blood contains little or no oxygen.
CAPILLARY BLEEDING: This results from damaged blood capillaries in the body; it is characterized by a purple red coloured blood which oozes from the spot of injury.

CATEGORIES OF BLEEDING
EXTERNAL BLEEDING: This is a kind of bleeding that occur as a result of sustaining an open wound, which brings the visibility of blood on the outside of the body.
INTERNAL BLEEDING: This is a kind of bleeding that is not visible on the outside of the skin, but can be suspected when the casualty vomits blood or when blood or body fluid containing some blood comes out from the natural body orifices such as the ear, nose, mouth, virginal, anus etc. This category of bleeding occurs as a result of internal damage of some organs of the body such as the kidney, heart, lungs, intestine, etc.

STAGES OF BLEEDING
PRIMARY BLEEDING: Bleeding is said to be in the primary stage when it occurs immediately after sustaining an injury.
SECONDARY BLEEDING: At this stage, bleeding occurs sometime after sustaining an injury.
REACTIONARY BLEEDING: At this stage, bleeding occurs as a result of mismanagement of old wounds; secondary injury or when the heart suddenly regenerates its force.  

CAUSES OF BLEEDING
The under listed are common cause of bleeding.
  • Rupture of blood vessels
  • Fracture
  • Wounds
  • Severe burns
  • Disease of the blood vessel
  • Disease of the blood itself.
Signs and Symptoms
  • Pale face
  • Cold and clammy skin
  • Thirstiness
  • Shock
  • Restlessness
  • Dizziness
  • Pain
  • Rapid pulse
  • Sweating
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Fast and weak pulse.
  • Bleeding from orifices
  • Shallow breathing
  • Fainting
Treatment
  1. Place the casualty in a comfortable position
  2. Reassure the casualty
  3. Arrest bleeding, bandage and elevate the affected part if possible
  4. Guide against or treat for shock
  5. If casualty complains of thirst, give sips of water
  6. If necessary dispose the casualty.

Diabetes -Types, Signs and Treatment

Diabetes
This is a condition in which the body fails to regulate the concentration of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Blood-sugar levels in the body are normally controlled by a hormone called insulin produced by the pancreas. As a result, sugar builds up in the blood and can cause hyperglycaemia (below). People with diabetes have to control their blood sugar with diet and insulin injections or tablets. Too much of insulin or too little sugar can cause hypoglycaemia (opposite). If a known diabetic casualty appears unwell, give sugar. This will rapidly correct hypoglycaemia and will do little harm in hyperglycaemia.

Types of Diabetes

  1. HYPERGLYCAEMIA: This is when the sugar content in the blood is said to be high and this is caused by the lack of insulin in the body in order to regulate the sugar content in the blood. Hyperglycaemia, over a long period, can result in unconsciousness. The casualty will drift into this state over a few days. It requires urgent treatment in hospital.

Signs and Symptoms of Hyperglycaemia
  • Warm
  • Dry skin
  • Rapid pulse and breathing
  • Fruity/sweet breath
  • Excessive thirst
  • Drowsiness
  • Unconsciousness

2    HYPOGLYCAEMIA: This is when the sugar content in the blood is said to be low due to too much of insulin and too little of sugar in the body and thereby affect the function of the brain. This problem is characterized by a rapidly deteriorating level of response. Hypoglycaemia can occur in people with diabetes and, more rarely, appear with an epileptic seizure.

Signs and Symptoms of Hypoglycaemia
  • A history of diabetes; the casualty may recognize the onset of a “hypo” attack
  • Weakness, faintness, or hunger
  • Palpitations and muscle tremors
  • Strange actions or behavior; the casualty may seem confused or belligerent
  • Sweating
  • Cold and clammy skin
  • Pulse may be rapid and strong
  • Deteriorating level of response

Treatment of Diabetes
  • If the casualty is conscious, give him a sugary drink, sugar lumps, chocolate, or other sweet food.
  • If the casualty is unconscious, be ready to resuscitate if necessary and place in recovery position
  • Seek medical advise




Definition and Aims of Treating Defibrillation

Defibrillation is the emergency procedure where first aiders apply an electronic device called an automated external defibrillator or AED to the chest of a cardiac arrest casualty and the device delivers a don't follows controlled electric shock to the casualty’s heart.
C Images

  • Send someone for the AED if not already.
  • Ensure safety
  • If multiple rescuers are present, assign tasks for each rescuers
  • Turn on the AED
  • Attach the electrode pads
  • If multiple rescuers, continue CPR while the pads are attached
  • Follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED
  • Ensure that nobody touches the casualty while the AED is analyzing the rhythm

If a shock is indicated:
  • Ensure that nobody touches the casualty
  • Push the shock button as directed
  • Fully-automatic AEDs will deliver the shock automatically
  • Continue to follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED
If no shock is indicated:
  • Immediately resume CPR using a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths.
  • Continue to follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED.
  • Send someone for the AED if not already.
  • Ensure safety
  • If multiple rescuers are present, assign tasks for each rescuers
  • Turn on the AED
  • Attach the electrode pads
  • If multiple rescuers, continue CPR while the pads are attached
  • Follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED
  • Ensure that nobody touches the casualty while the AED is analyzing the rhythm

If a shock is indicated:
  • Ensure that nobody touches the casualty
  • Push the shock button as directed
  • Fully-automatic AEDs will deliver the shock automatically
  • Continue to follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED
C Images
       
Aims of Treatment
  • To maintain an open airway
  • To assess and record the level of response
  • To arrange, if necessary, urgent removal to hospital
  • To treat any associated injuries
  • To gather and retain any circumstantial evidence of the cause of the condition.

Definition, Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Of Heart Attack

Heart attack is most commonly caused by a sudden obstruction of the blood supply to part of the heart muscle. It is a sudden illness or obstruction in the coronary artery (coronary thrombosis) that disturbs the breathing. The main risk is that the heart will stop beating.

The effect of a heart attack depends largely on how much of the heart muscle is affected; many casualties recover completely. Heart attack is also caused by Cardio Vascular disease called ATHEROSCLEROSIS (This is the build up of plague caused by cholesterol and other debris that narrows the arteries (clot)). Drug such as aspirin is used to dissolve the blood clot and limit the extent of damage to the heart muscle.

Causes of Heart Attack
  • Blood clot in the coronary artery located in the heart
  • High blood pressure
  • Hypertension
  • Overlabouring the heart.
  • The size of the heart and the size of the body.

Signs and Symptoms of Heart Attack
  • Persistent crushing of central chest often spreading to the jaw, neck and down one or both arms towards the left hand side where the heart is located
  • Breathlessness, and discomfort occurring high in the abdomen, which may feel similar to severe indigestion
  • Strain in the heart
  • Sudden faintness or dizziness
  • A sense of impending doom
  • Collapse, often without any warning
  • “Ashen” skin, and blueness at the lips
  • A rapid, weak, or irregular pulse
  • Profuse sweating, cool, clammy skin
  • Extreme gasping for air i.e. hair hunger

Treatment of Heart Attack
  • Make the casualty as comfortable as possible to ease the strain on his heart. A half-sitting position, with the casualty’s head and shoulders well supported and his knees bent.
  • If the casualty is fully conscious, give him a full dose (300mg) aspirin tablet and advise him to chew it slowly.
  • Seek medical advise
  • Be prepared to resuscitate if necessary
  • Constantly monitor and record vital signs – level of response, pulse, and breathing.
  • Transport the casualty to the hospital.
Heart Attack

Defintion, Causes, Signs and Treatment of Stroke (Apoplexy)

The term “stroke” describes a condition in which the blood supply to part of the brain is suddenly and seriously impaired by a blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel. Stroke occurs more commonly in later life and in people who suffer from high blood pressure or some other circulatory disorder. The effect of a stroke depends on how much, and which part, of the brain is affected. In some cases, the condition can be fatal; however, many people make a complete recovery from a stroke.

Causes of Stroke
  • Weakness in the blood vessels, especially, those that transport blood to the brain.
  • High blood pressure
  • Blood clot in the blood vessels
  • Ruptured blood vessels

Signs and Symptoms of Stroke
  • Problems with speech and swallowing
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding.
  • Loss of power or movement in the limbs
  • Sudden, severe headache
  • Sudden dizziness, trouble walking, loss of balance or coordination and bladder control. Emotional mental state that could be mistaken for drunkenness.
  • Sudden or gradual loss of consciousness
  • Sudden numbness or weakness – especially to only one side of the body
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
  • Sudden severe headache with no known cause.

Treatment of Stroke
  • If the casualty is conscious, make her lie down with her head and shoulders slightly raised and supported. Incline her head to the affected side, and place a towel on her shoulder to absorb any dribbling
  • Loose all clothing that might impair the casualty’s breathing.
  • Reassure her
  • Monitor and record vital signs level of response, pulse, and breathing
  • Seek medical help or transport the casualty to the hospital.

Risks Factors of Stroke
  • Atrial  Fibrillation
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiac Disease
  • No exercise
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Heavy alcohol use

Caution
Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink because a stroke may make it difficult to swallow.

WHAT IS HEAD INJURY?

Head Injury

Head injury is an injury to the brain that causes a brief and partial loss of consciousness. All head injuries are potentially serious and require proper assessment because they can result in impaired consciousness. Injuries may be associated with damage to the brain tissue or blood vessels inside the skull, or with a skull fracture.
A head injury may produce concussion, which is a brief period of unconsciousness followed by complete recovery. Some head injuries may produce compression of the brain (cerebral compression), which is life-threatening.

A head injury should alert you to the risk of deeper, underlying damage, such as a skull fracture,    which may be serious. Bleeding inside the skull may also occur and lead to compression. Clear fluid or watery blood leaking from the ear or nose are signs of serious injury. Any casualty with an injury to the head should be assumed to have a neck (spinal) injury.

Signs and symptoms of Head Injuries
  • Scalp wound
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Fractures
  • Nasal discharge
  • Swelling and bruising
  • Loss of teeth
  • Stiff neck

Causes of Head Injuries
  • Brain shaking (concussion)
  • Loss of memory
  • Dizziness – pressure on the brain (compression)
  • Violent blow at the head
  • Heavy knock of the head at wall or floor. It is common in children.

Treatment of Head Injuries
  • Place the casualty in the recovery position. Monitor and record breathing, pulse and level of consciousness every ten minutes.
  • Treat any visible wound on the head (if there is any)
  • If unconscious, carry out the process of DRABCD
  • Seek medical aid.