Showing posts with label Educational. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Educational. Show all posts

Western Philosophy Of History: From Mythical And Theocratic Accounts To Greek Age

The present stage of historical scholarship was not arrived at overnight; it was preceded by some development and growth. The first stage in historical thinking was what is called "Theocratic History" or "Mythical Account." The earliest accounts are referred to as theocratic because (of course) the actions recorded therein are not human but divine; the statements made are not fruits of research but mere assertions. Again, the statements are not answers to questions. Although theocratic history is not primarily concerned with the history of human actions, it is nevertheless concerned with their individual actions in the sense that the divine characters in the history are superhuman rulers of human societies whose actions therefore are actions done partly to those societies and partly through them. In theocratic history, humanity is not an agent but partly an instrument and partly a patient of the actions recorded. Finally, these actions are thought of as having definite places in time series and occurring in the past.
Mythical Accounts
Quite unlike theocratic accounts mythical accounts are not concerned with human endeavours at all. The human element has been completely removed and the characters of the story are simply gods or God. Besides, the divine actions recorded are not dated events in the past; they are in the dateless past which is so remote that nobody knows when it was, it is outside our time reckonings but belonged to the "beginning of things. A good example is Genesis 1 vs. 1-3. “In the beginning God created the heavens and the Earth, the Earth was without form and void and darkness was upon the face of the deep, and the Spirit of God was moving over the surface of waters, and God said, "Let there be light, and there was light.”
The Creation of Scientific History by Herodotus
The man who elevated history to the level of scientific knowledge was the Greek named HERODOTUS. He was among the first set of Greeks to recognize that history is or can be a science and that it has to do with human actions. Herodotus lived in the 5th Century BC. Because of what he did for history, he has been, given the appellation "the Father of History." Before the 5th century BC, attempts to write about the past was theocratic and mythical. It was not a scientific study of human societies or activities. Although there were popular works such as Homer's, they were more about ethics, describing and embellishing the great deeds of the grandfathers of Greece. With Herodotus, however, there was a break in literary traditions. History for him is not legend, it is research; it is not mythical but about events in a dated past. It is not theocratic but humanistic. It was Herodotus who first used the word history to mean an "investigation" or "enquiry." He thus introduced history as a science.
The greatness of Herodotus as the father of history is further buttressed when he is set against a background consisting of the general tendencies of Greek though – only what is unchanging can be known. History, therefore, is a forlorn hope. An attempt to know what has been transitory is unknowable. In other words, historical knowledge was considered impossible. Against all odds, Herodotus set to the probe the past activities of man. Questions were now asked to get definite answers. Through skillful questioning, he was able to convincingly prove that historical knowledge was possible, something which the Greeks had labeled a forlorn hope. Indeed, Herodotus derived his fame as father of history from his book, the Histories.  The theme of the book was, The Causes and Course of the Peloponnesian War (Persian invasion of Greece, 492 – 479 BC). He was a child when the event took place. In his work, Herodotus used three main sources that were available to him. First, his own observations during his travels. He observed the buildings and customs of peoples in areas visited– Egypt, Mesopotamia, Palestine, Southern Russia, etc. Second, he took oral testimonies from witnesses or participants. Because of the closeness of the event, Herodotus had the opportunity of meeting people whop participated in the war before the event became blurred in their memories. Thirdly, he read existing documents and chronicles. The search for such materials was a crucial factor which distinguished him from his predecessors and further strengthened his position as the father of history.
Herodotus was not just writing about what he knew or what he had or dreamt of. He realized that he was ignorant on many aspects of the war and therefore went out to ask people questions which could help him fill in the gaps which existed in his own account. Another point which validates his claim is that of handling his materials. Here, Herodotus demonstrated an attitude which was then uncommon. He was critical, vigorously questioning the validity of all pieces of information. Such questions include:
Are you quite sure you remember it just like that?  Have you not contradicted what you were saying yesterday? How do you reconcile your account of that event with that different account given by so – and – so?
This methodology was quite new at the time and it accounts much for Herodotus' fame. In some instances, one may accuse him of exhibiting a trait characteristic of the writers of mythical and theocratic accounts. In fairness to him, one has to understand that the degree that he could use his critical method was limited by the society in which he was working, the limit of the knowledge at that time, and the limit of his own personal knowledge. In most cases, he had no means of crosschecking events and hence had to use his personal initiative.  Consequently, when faced with two or more conflicting accounts, he chose one which he felt was more probable. Nonetheless, he would still record the other version for the readers to make their own independent judgment. Whenever he made any choice, he would give reasons for them.
Moreover, the Histories was the first European prose. Before him, most writings were in poetic form, chronicles and verses. He also used dialogues by which he put words in the mouth of the historical characters. We should, however, note that the reason for his action is that, at that time works were meant to be read in the public. For any work to appeal to the audience it had  to be funny in content and interpretations. Nonetheless, the Histories measured up to the standard of a good historical writing. Although, the book by the present standard is mere logography, it thundered an historical development when it was written. In fact, the pioneering effort of Herodotus must be recognized. It was he who paved the way for the subsequent generation of scientific historians. His work is the fountain-head of modern historical thinking.
Briefly, Herodotus can be regarded as the father of history because some of his methods and ideas still remain within the fold of modern historical scholarship: firstly, the use of the world History itself. It was Herodotus who first used the word to mean investigation or enquiry into the human past. Secondly, the humanistic concern in his work could be regarded as the beginning of social history. For Herodotus, history is nothing short of human actions and he paid detailed attention to peoples language, traditions and customs. Thirdly, Herodotus set himself certain objectives which had since remained important in historical scholarship. He set out to write an impartial account. He also set to document the great deeds of the participants of the Greaco – Persian war so that they might not be forgotten by posterity. In effect, he wrote for the information of his own and future generations. Fourthly, Herodotus' method of collecting materials can still be recommended for modern researchers; a meticulous search for evidence, vigorous cross – examination of informants and direct observation.
Lastly, the critical analysis and interpretation started by Herodotus are, in fact, the basis of modern historical writing. It is therefore not surprising that R. G. Collingwood was full of praises for him and compared him with Socrates.  However, there is an area where Herodotus fell short as an Historian. He believed that behind individual person stands destiny or fate which determines the course of his life. This emphasis on the centrality of divine intervention in the unfolding of the historical process led him to adopt an excessive moralistic approach in his assessment  of the actions of the principal historical actors.
Another Greek historian of the medieval period was Thucydides. Like Herodotus, Thucydides has come to be regarded as a giant in Western Historiography. This was because he carried further the scientific conception of history started by Herodotus. History for him is an enquiry, based on meticulous search for evidence, rigorous cross – examination of evidence of informants, weighing of evidence and direct observation. He was purely concerned with humanistic purpose of history. History for him was the study of human activities. Unlike Herodotus, Thucydides secularized the humanistic aspects of his thoughts. In order words, he excluded divine intervention in his historical writings. Instead, he postulated an explanation of chance or coincidence as the determinant factor in the course of human life. Thucydides did not regard history as mere story telling with occasional embellishment and explanations. His approach to the fact of history is that they should be used in revealing the deeper causes of historical events and movements. Thucydides was not a logographer but a scientific student. He chose to write on the Peloponnesian war because, according to him, earlier events cannot be adequately ascertained.
One important area where he surpassed Herodotus was in his appeal to evidence.  While one is left to gather from Herodotus' works what his idea of evidence was, Thucydides explicitly stated that historical enquiries rest on evidence. This was the picture of Western historiography during Thucydides' time.

Human Resource Development For Library And Information Professionals

Today the world is witnessing the information era where knowledge is power. With more knowledge you have the power to access information globally through the internet. There is high demand from all works of life for filtered, processed, specifically packaged, tailor made and value added information. The information sector as a whole and university libraries which are the major partner of the information sector are undergoing serious challenges and pressure to provide right information to the right user at the right time also at the right cost. The present information environment has to enhance the expectations of users for timely, relevant, completely and easily accessible and tangible information services in the same vein as it is practiced for profit or commercial purposes.

According to the 5 M’s of management (i.e. Men, Money, Machine, Material and Methods) men is the most important means for the optimum utilization of other resources. In other to provide information products, services and consultations according to the needs, desires and expectation of the users we need committed, competent, confident, dynamic, educated, motivated, and trained employees. It is this context that has brought Human Resource Development to the centre stage of library and information management process.
Concept of Human Resource Development (HRD)
Developing human resource means developing Human Beings who can change things, and be in tune with the ever changing information environment by adapting themselves or adapting to things and idea according to the environment in which they find themselves in. Human Resource Development is the process of helping people to acquire the following competencies in a planed and continuous way.
  1. To sharpen their capabilities this is required of them to perform at various capacities both at their present and expected roles in future.
  2. To develop general capabilities as individuals and exploit their inner potential for their own and organizational purposes.
  3. To develop an organizational culture and inculcate right attitudes towards customers.
  4. To equip clearly precisely about all the process, procedures, practices and other aspects of the job.
  5. To develop capacity and competence for higher work and greater responsibilities and accountability.
Concept of Human Resource Development for Information Staff
Top performers of the world treat their employees as assets to be developed rather than commodities to be used.
The theory is centered on investment in human development. Neither Machines nor stagnant, demotivated and alienated employees help to achieve the objectives of the organization.   
Libraries are non profit making service agencies having and human resource development effect on the community to be served. Customer is an integral part of the whole service delivery system. Like other services libraries are expected to remain a few steps ahead of its clients. Moreover, the shifting paradigms of customer’s service, technology (IT), financial management, efficiency, effectiveness, economy, reputation and recognition have forced the librarians to redesign there services and organizational structures to cope with the challenges posed by information environment in view of the above, human resource development instrument is needed for competency development, climate building and innovation development. Human resource development will improve the processes and process improvements leads to improvement in staff and staff development leads to all development. Human resource development instrument helps staff to sense, serve and satisfy the needs, wants and expectations of customers.
Human Resource Development: An Agenda for Library and Information Staff
Purpose of every organization is the development of the organization of the parent organization, and to provide products and services to suit the dictates of the environment.
All the above developments start from the personal development of the individuals. Libraries are service enterprises aimed at rendering best possible information service, consultations and products to the satisfaction, desires, and expectations of the users. If this goal is to be achieved some human resources development interventions are to be implemented.
Training aims to standardize behavior in a predictable set of circumstances, but education enables him to exercise judgment and decisions. Education, undoubtedly continues to remain the most outstanding development such that an educated person can acquire skills, attitudes, values and interest as would enable him/her become the subject of development. Qualitative based on commitment, team work and human touch needs both body and soul, heart and hand i.e. wisdom, compassion and labour. All staff members should be given the chance to improve their qualifications through Open Universities.
Upgrading of Technical Skills
Most of the library staff may be qualified in traditional library science and technique, and still might not be good at using of modern I.C.T facilities. All of them need to be trained and exposed on how to use the latest information gadget with special reference to the effective way of storing as well as retrieval of information. The new mind set, knowledge, skills would bring qualitative change in their service. Library automation and information technology is the major area of training and continuing education.
Role of Libraries
The library is a service organization which is mostly concerned with the methods, skills and system for the acquisition storage, preservation, retrieval and use of literature. The main concerned of the library has always been determined primarily by the needs of those it serves and by the fields of literature it handles.
Libraries increases productivity and performance through literature searching and reading. It also accelerates changes. In technology business and social activities and aids the development of new knowledge and also increases idea and provides new insight in improving competences with current information.
Libraries are of greater help to the serious research worker in rapid development.
    The librarian is one who has the care of a library and its contents, selection of the books, documents and non-book materials which comprise its stock and providing information and loan services to meet the needs of its users. The librarian also oversees the maintenance of the library service; develop appropriate service for legal practice, set up new library new indexing system and introducing new technology responsibility for archives and internal microfilming programme.
Information Service
    This is service provided by or for special library which draw attention to information possessed in the library or information department in anticipation of demand, this is done by preparing; and circulating news sheet, literature surveys, reading lists, abstracts, particulars of articles in current periodicals, organize, manage and develop information service develop sound understanding of information requirement and set up technical information service.
Skills for organizational System, Structure and Procedures  
Library and information services are encountered with change in the service rendering mechanism, and a matching change in its operational modalities and methods will also be imminent. Some methods have to be developed for service aspects. Exposure to these aspects of services and user friendly methods, systems and procedures are quite essential for changing library management scenario.              
Managerial Skills
    No doubt information technology (IT) dramatically influenced the library product, services, reading management decision support system, electronic spread sheets, and expert system. But at the same time one need to know why individuals with more or less technical knowledge and working under a given kind of environment differ greatly in terms of producing the results. Apart from the technical expertise ones managerial skills certainly determine the efficiency, effectiveness and the quality of output which are quite important in our system. Hence all those concerned with library management should acquire managerial skills on the following important themes through specific management training programmes                                                                                                 
  • Leadership: Beyond power and authority and based on voluntary compliance.
  • Empowerment: The act of providing knowledge, authority, training, facilities and resource to individuals.
  • Team work, Trust and Quality circles.
  • Time management.
  • Mind Sets: Organizational culture and attitudes.
  • Resource management.
  • Being dynamic, creative and innovative.
  • Human relations.
  • Change and conflict management.
  • Intrinsic motivation, recognition and total involvement.
  • Professional and personal competencies.
  • Performance Assessment.
  • Vision, mission, goal, objectives and values.
  • Role analysis, job description, accountability and responsibility.
  • Planning organizing, directing and controlling.
  • Customer orientation and customer care based on excellence and humanization.
  • Organisational learning, Bench making and reengineering.
  • Reviews, discussions, feedback, counseling sessions.
  • Communication policies.
  • Job enrichment and job rotation programmes.
  • Human Resource Development information and manpower forecasting.
Interpersonal Relationships
     Relationships at work are crucial to organizational success as well as individual well being. Good relationships make the most horrible jobs tolerable or even enjoyable, while gets killed by poor relationships.
    Besides, organizations rely heavily on team work. Individual contribution does count in an organization, but critical to organizational well-being is a team member’s contribution to teamwork and results.
    It is essential for you as a new entrant to get along well with other team members, as also members of other teams i.e. intra department and inter-department team work and work relationship.
     Therefore, in your effort to create an impactful and credible reputation, your ability to get along with others, as also your interpersonal relationships skills assume critical importance. It is of little use if you are good; intelligent, sharp, and committed. It is of little use if you are unable to get along with others in your workplace.  
Two Important Parameter of Interpersonal Relationships
  • A good level of self esteem and self-worth.
  • Related and relationships.
People who are uncomfortable with themselves are uncomfortable with others and teamwork suffers. Create a high level of self – comfort and self-trust, only then will you find it easy to trust others and be comfortable with them.
  Information technology (IT) has become pervasive in all walks of life. It is changing, the way people think, work and do business. Information has become a strategic global resource for user activities at all levels. In todays information environment, the delivery of information products, services and consultation depends as much on the providers ability to access local and global information as much o n education, knowledge, background and local conditions. In view of the above Human Resource Development mechanisms of continuing education, training in (IT) and managerial skills through seminars, workshops, short course which improve the work processes and will enhance the professional and personal competence, compatibility and capability of the library staff in meeting the organizational goals and delight of the users and pride of workmanships.
Da Bas, K. C and Gill, N. S., “Managing quality in University Libraries in Kumar, R.P.Ed sustainable library and information services. Delhi 1997.
Eaglen, A, Buying books; a how-to-do-it manual for librarians, no 4 New York; Neal Schuman 1989.
Harrods, L. M, Harrods librarians glossary of terms used in librarianship, documentation and book crafts and reference book. 7th edition – England, Gower Publishing Company ltd 1990.
Oketunji, I., Managing Information and Communication Technology in the knowledge Age. Pace setting agenda for libraries of developing economy: A compendium of papers presented at 39th National Conference of Nigeria Library Association held at Owerri
Nwachukwu, C. C., Management theory and practice: Africana first publishers limited Onitsha, Nigeria.        
Ramaiah, C. K., An overview of electronic books: a bibliography. The electronic library 23 (1), 1744, 2005.
Rao, T. V, Strategies of developing human resources: experiences from 14 organizations, Ahmedabad, Indian Institute of Management working paper.
The international dictionary of English language 1998 mass: Springfield.

Library and Information Services Through Work Integration and Oriented Training

This paper reviews concepts of library and information services that can improve professionals training of librarians. The focus on Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) has been shown to be effectives and has become a necessary condition for the Award of Diplomas and Degree Certificates in the specifics disciplines in most institutions in accordance with education police of the Federal Government of Nigeria. The concept of Work Integrated and Oriented Training (WIOT), which is aimed at continuous occupational skill development and training of young professionals in early stages of their career is suggested. Similarly, the concept of Librarian Industrial Work Experience Scheme (LIWES) suggested is aimed at librarians, to bring transformation to industry and higher institutions as it can enhance and strengthen academic and industrial collaboration for the overall benefit of the nation. The paper shows that if and when these ideals are properly implemented, they will go a long way to enhance the achievement of a more qualitative and result oriented and information services for the advancement of Nigeria’s institution.
Keywords: Library and Information Services, work integrated oriented training, Librarian Industrial Works Experience Scheme (LIWES).
The need for library and information services and re-training of personnel is vital for industrial and economic growth of any Nation. Technology and business world are not static but evolving with each passing second with research and product development to achieve leading edge and marked advantage. Thus, it is highly essential that employees are regularly updated in their knowledge and skill in order to achieve improved productivity and efficient and sustained business environment which are desirable indices of most investors. The success of Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in bridging the gap between the theoretical knowledge impacted in tertiary institutions and the practical experience of the work environment cannot be overemphasized.
SIWES provide opportunity for students to familiarize themselves and be exposed to practical work related to their course of studies, thereby supplementing and strengthening and their theoretical knowledge. The logical extension from SIWES which is primarily for student is the concept of Work Integrated and Oriented Training which is aimed at young graduate professionals in early stages of career.
The concept and vision of WIOT is to encourage continuous occupational skills development and training. It is widely known that when a tree stops growing it start decaying. This is also tree of knowledge and business. Learning must increase hourly. After graduation and securing employment, most young graduate assume that they have arrived especially with fat pay cheques which their parent never dreamt of. Except for job-driven ones, most of them assume that further training was not needed. They assume that training and research were only for those in academic environment. However, the truth is that as a result of market competition and innovations, new technology and new methods of production is always emerging.
Consequently each company is striving not only to stay in business but also to have leading edge over their increasing competitors. They realize the huge potential in young professionals and they invest heavily on them for future dividends.
The objective of this paper is to sensitize information services awareness on the concept and beneficial work integration and oriented training and beneficial practice of SIWES, WIOT and TIWES so as to facilitate synergy and all-round commitment of young librarian profession to work integrated learning that could enhance and improve the Nigeria educational and National development.
                                      The Concept of Library
A Library is a social institution. As such to serve several purposes.
  1. It should help the life-young self-education of one and all.
  2. It should furnish up-to-date facts and information on all subjects to one and all.
  3. It should work for continued social well-being, as the agency in charge of all socialized recorded thought.
  4. It should contribute to productivity-drive by informing top-managements of the latest trends in diverse enterprises by ploughing back into the minds of researchers, designers and technologists every piece of relevant new thought, promptly and pin-pointedly.
  5. It should provide to one and all a harmless and elevating use of leisure.
Thus a library has educational, informational, political, economic, industrial, cultural and antiquarian functions.  
These principles were formulated in 1928 as the five laws of Library Science. It was published in a book in 1931
Here are the Five Laws:
  1. Books are for use.
  2. Every reader his book.
  3. Every books its reader.
  4. Save the time of the reader.
  5. Library is a growing organism.
Concept of Librarianship: Roles and Responsibility.
A librarian is an information professional trained in library and information science, which is the organization and management of information services or materials for those with information needs. Typically, librarians work in public or university library and media centre. Some librarians are independent entrepreneurs working as information specialized capacities. Librarians may be categorized as a public, school, correctional, special, independent or academic librarian.
Traditionally, librarian have been associated with collection of books, journals, newspapers, magazines, audio recordings(both musical and spoken-words), map manuscripts, photographs and other graphic materials, bibliographic databases, web searching and digital resources.
Librarians often provide other information services, including computer provision and training, coordination of public programs, basic literacy education, assistive equipment for people with disabilities, and help with finding and using community resources.
 The Concept of Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES)
The Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) was initiated in 1973 by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF). This was in response to the mandate given to the ITF through Decree 47 of 971, charging it with the responsibility of promoting and encouraging the acquisition of skill in industry and commerce with the view to generating a pool of trained indigenous manpower to meet the needs of the economy..
SIWES has come to be recognized as the major avenue of bridging the gaps between the theory acquired by students of tertiary institutions essential to the technological and economic development of Nigeria. Since its introduction by the ITF in 1973, the scheme has gone through series of reforms and restricting. For instance, its management has changed hands from the ITF to the various regulatory agencies. National Universities Commission (NUC), National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and back to the ITF. Similarly, the structure and operational framework have been reviewed, streamlined and made more functional at the various levels of its operations. Following the resumption of management of SIWES by the ITF in 1984, the scheme had witnessed rapid expansion. Between 1985 and 1995, the numbers of institutions and student participating in SIWES rose to 141 57.433 respectively.
The concept of Work Integrated and Oriented Training (WIOT)
In order to fully realize the social-economic development of the Nation, the logical extension from SIWES is therefore the concept of Work Integrated Oriented Training (WIOT), which is aimed at continuous occupational skills development and training of young professionals in early stage of their career. In this pursuit, the key players are the public and private sectors the young professionals and the higher institutions of learning. It is a strategy through which the academic and work experience are formally integrated through structured programmers that will be developed, executed and supervised by higher institutions in collaboration with their commercial/industrial partners. There is a need for higher institution to tailor their curriculum to meet industrial, commercial as well as government needs. With the current government policy encouraging higher institutions to source funds from other sources, they will be obliged to form cooperative partnerships with public and private sectors and local communities in order to deliver research outputs that will meet industrial, commercial and societal need. In the case of WIOT, there will necessarily be the need to have a workplace supervisor or mentor.
There a lot of benefits to be derived by all stake holders. For the young professionals, such training could be go a long way to enhance registration with the Library Registration Council of Nigeria (LRCN) for the registration of librarians in Nigeria. It could also bring about the shaping of their professional skill and competent that will result in improved efficiency and productivity. For the employers, it will definitely improve staff efficiency and productivity, and also enhance stability and dedication of the work fore. There will be constant injection of new technology and innovative ideas from both researchers and field practitioners. For the librarians and researchers, it could lead to direct research grants from the employers.
The Concept of Librarian Industrial Works Experience Scheme (LIWES)
Development policies, there is need to ensure that those that are responsible for training the young to enhance the success of educational and national professional librarians are themselves updated. This is where it becomes necessary for librarians to undergo Industrial Work Experience Scheme.
The idea was originally conceived by NUC which organized a workshop and a pioneering scheme at the University of Jos in 2005. The Librarian Industrial Work Experience Scheme (LIWES) was conceived primarily to enable Professional Librarians garner and exchange experiences with professionals in academic and subsequently improve their curriculum delivery in the University system. While at the industries, the Librarians would be expected to engage in hands-on involvement with the industrial processes or in industry based research relevant to the academic discipline of their specialization. Industries are expected to benefit from the experience of the Librarian in conceptual matters which could be utilized to improve their activities. The scheme is expected to engender collaboration between institution of higher learning and industry in problem-solving research and in training manpower needs of such industries some of the objectives as outline in as follows:
  1. To help the life-long self education of one and all.
  2. To promote increased relevance of subject materials taught at Universities to the work situation in related field.
  3. To enable Librarian obtain a clearer picture of industrial if regarding opportunities and challenges.
  4. To reinforce the subject taught in classroom with the practical professional knowledge obtained in academic.
  5. To provide Librarians with insights into work environments and the skills necessary for success of students after graduation
  6. To foster greater understanding between professional librarian and people in academic thereby improving university-industry relations; and
  7. To promote information dissemination and development of collaborative training programmes and research for national development.
There are three important points that could be drawn from the communiqué that was issued at the conclusion of the NUC workshop, which are follows:
  • Eligibility: All cadres of academic staff for participation in SIWES are eligible to participate in TIWES. However, preference should be given to junior academic staffs without previous industrial experience or to more senior ones whose industrial experiences are outdated.
  • Duration: The duration of TIWES should be three months so that it can be carried out during the university long vacation period. This will be without prejudice to the one year sabbatical leave that academic staffs are currently entitled.
  • Funding: For the scheme to be successful, the Government and industries should provide the funding just in the same way SIWES is funding through Industrial Training Fund (ITF).
There will be need to set up a supervisory body whose member are drawn from university and industries. At the end of their attachments, beneficiaries would be required to submit comprehensive reports similar to their SIWES attachments. Student final year projects can spring up from such reports and can be utilized to build collaborative work with the industries.
The objective of Librarians Industrial Work Experience Scheme was primarily to enable library support new research and teaching initiatives through the timely acquisition of needed library and information resources and exchange experiences with professionals in the field and subsequently improve their curriculum delivery in the university system. The scheme will ensure that subject materials taught at universities are relevant and related to current industrial and academic needs of the nation.
In conclusion, the concepts of SIWES, WIOT, and LIWES could go a long way to facilitate synergy and all-round commitment of young professionals to work integrated learning. If and when these ideas are properly implemented, they can have the potential to enhance and improve efficiency and academic input and productivity. It will also enhance and improve teaching, learning and researches techniques and capability of lecturers, librarians that will have opportunities of bridging the gap between theory and practical.   
  1. Aina, L.O. (2002) research in information science: An African perspective. University of Bostswana, Gaboron, Botswana
  2. Mafe, O.A.T. (2014) Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES).Guide to successful participation in SIWES
  3. Raghavan, K.S. and Prasad, K.N. (2009) Library and Information Systems. From Alexandrian Heritage to social Networking (Essays in Honor of Prof. S. Parthasarathy) Sarada Ragananthan Endowment for Library Science: Bangalore.
  4. Stueart, R.D. and Moran, B.B. (1998) Library and Information Centre management’ Libraries unlimited INC. Colorrador.

The Overview of General Equilibrium

In economics, general equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that a set of prices exists that will result in an overall (or "general") equilibrium. General equilibrium theory contrasts to partial equilibrium, which only analyzes single markets. As with all models, this is an abstraction from a real economy; it is proposed as being a useful model, both by considering equilibrium prices as long-term prices and by considering actual prices as deviations from equilibrium.

General equilibrium theory both studies economies using the model of equilibrium pricing and seeks to determine in which circumstances the assumptions of general equilibrium will hold. The theory dates to the 1870s, particularly the work of French economist Léon Walras in his pioneering 1874 work Elements of Pure Economics.
It is often assumed that agents are price takers, and under that assumption two common notions of equilibrium exist: Walrasian (or competitive) equilibrium, and its Walrasian (or competitive) equilibrium, and its generalization; a price equilibrium with transfersBroadly speaking, general equilibrium tries to give an understanding of the whole economy using a "bottom-up" approach, starting with individual markets and agents.
Macroeconomics, as developed by the Keynesian economists, focused on a "top-down" approach, where the analysis starts with larger aggregates, the "big picture". Therefore, general equilibrium theory has traditionally been classified as part of microeconomics.
The difference is not as clear as it used to be, since much of modern macroeconomics has emphasized microeconomic foundations, and has constructed general equilibrium models of macroeconomic fluctuations. General equilibrium macroeconomic models usually have a simplified structure that only incorporates a few markets, like a "goods market" and a "financial market". In contrast, general equilibrium models in the microeconomic tradition typically involve a multitude of different goods markets.
They are usually complex and require computers to help with numerical solutions. In a market system the prices and production of all goods, including the price of money and interest, are interrelated. For example, a change in the price of one good, say bread, may affect another price, such as bakers' wages. If bakers differ in tastes from others, the demand for bread might be affected by a change in bakers' wages, with a consequent effect on the price of bread e.g sweet sensation bread and mr biggs bread.
Calculating the equilibrium price of just one good, in theory, requires an analysis that accounts for all of the millions of different goods that are available. The first attempt in neoclassical economics to model prices for a whole economy was made by Léon Walras.
Walras' Elements of Pure Economics provides a succession of qmodels, each taking into account more aspects of a real economy (two commodities, many commodities, production, growth, money).
In particular, Walras's model was a long-run model in which prices of capital goods are the same whether they appear as inputs or outputs and in which the same rate of profits is earned in all lines of industry. This is inconsistent with the quantities of capital goods being taken as data. But when Walras introduced capital goods in his later models, he took their quantities as given, in arbitrary ratios. (In contrast, Kenneth Arrow and Gérard Debreu continued to take the initial quantities of capital goods as given, but adopted a short run model in which the prices of capital goods vary with time and the own rate of interest varies across capital goods.)
Walras was the first to lay down a research program much followed by 20th-century economists. In particular, the Walrasian agenda included the investigation of when equilibria are unique and stable. Walras' shows neither uniqueness, nor stability, nor even existence of an equilibrium is guaranteed and also proposed a dynamic process by which general equilibrium might be reached, like that of the tâtonnement or groping process.
The tâtonnement process is a model for investigating stability of equilibria. Prices are announced (perhaps by an "auctioneer"), and agents state how much of each good they would like to offer (supply) or purchase (demand). No transactions and no production take place at disequilibrium prices. Instead, prices are lowered for goods with positive prices and excess supply. Prices are raised for goods with excess demand. The question for the mathematician is under what conditions such a process will terminate in equilibrium where demand equates to supply for goods with positive prices and demand does not exceed supply for goods with a price of zero. Walras was not able to provide a definitive answer to this question .
The modern conception of general equilibrium is provided by a model developed jointly by Kenneth Arrow, Gérard Debreu, and Lionel W. McKenzie in the 1950s. Debreu presents this model in Theory of Value (1959) as an axiomatic model, following the style of mathematics promoted by Nicolas Bourbaki. In such an approach, the interpretation of the terms in the theory (e.g., goods, prices) are not fixed by the axioms.Three important interpretations of the terms of the theory have been often cited.
First, suppose commodities are distinguished by the location where they are delivered. Then the Arrow-Debreu model is a spatial model. Second, suppose commodities are distinguished by when they are delivered. That is, suppose all markets equilibrate at some initial instant of time. Agents in the model purchase and sell contracts, where a contract specifies, for example, a good to be delivered and the date at which it is to be delivered. The Arrow–Debreu model of inter temporal equilibrium contains forward markets for all goods at all dates. No markets exist at any future dates.Third, suppose contracts specify states of nature which affect whether a commodity is to be delivered: "A contract for the transfer of a commodity now specifies, in addition to its physical properties, its location and its date, an event on the occurrence of which the transfer is conditional.
This new definition of a commodity allows one to obtain a theory of [risk] free from any probability concept. Some of the recent work in general equilibrium has in fact explored the implications of incomplete markets, which is to say an inter temporal economy with uncertainty, where there do not exist sufficiently detailed contracts that would allow agents to fully allocate their consumption and resources through time. While it has been shown that such economies will generally still have an equilibrium, the outcome may no longer be Pareto optimal.
The basic intuition for this result is that if consumers lack adequate means to transfer their wealth from one time period to another and the future is risky, there is nothing to necessarily tie any price ratio down to the relevant marginal rate of substitution, which is the standard requirement for Pareto optimality. Under some conditions the economy may still be constrained Pareto optimal, meaning that a central authority limited to the same type and number of contracts as the individual agents may not be able to improve upon the outcome, what is needed is the introduction of a full set of possible contracts.  Hence, one implication of the theory of incomplete markets is that inefficiency may be a result of underdeveloped financial institutions or credit constraints faced by some members of the public. Research still continues in this area.
Basic questions in general equilibrium analysis are concerned with the conditions under which equilibrium will be efficient, which efficient equilibria can be achieved, when equilibrium is guaranteed to exist and when the equilibrium will be unique and stable. For us to know this, we shall look at the following
  • First Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics
The First Fundamental Welfare Theorem asserts that market equilibria are Pareto efficient. In a pure exchange economy, a sufficient condition for the first welfare theorem to hold is that preferences be locally non satiated. The first welfare theorem also holds for economies with production regardless of the properties of the production function. Implicitly, the theorem assumes complete markets and perfect information. In an economy with externalities, like Nigeria for example, it is possible for equilibria to arise that are not efficient. This theorem is informative in the sense that it points to the sources of inefficiency in markets. Under the assumptions above, any market equilibrium is tautologically efficient. Therefore, when equilibria arise that are not efficient, the market system itself is not to blame, but rather some sort of market failure.
  • Second Fundamental Theorem of Welfare Economics
While every equilibrium is efficient, it is clearly not true that every efficient allocation of resources will be an equilibrium. However, the second theorem states that every efficient allocation can be supported by some set of prices. In other words, all that is required to reach a particular outcome is a redistribution of initial endowments of the agents after which the market can be left alone to do its work. This suggests that the issues of efficiency and equity can be separated and need not involve a trade-off. The conditions for the second theorem are stronger than those for the first, as consumers' preferences now need to be convex (convexity roughly corresponds to the idea of diminishing rates of marginal substitution, or to preferences where "averages are better than extrema"). Further up, the Second Fundamental Theorem of Equilibrium Analysis leads to Perfect Equilibrium Analysis where market forces join together planned economies in a perfect bound.
  • Existence
Even though every equilibrium is efficient, neither of the above two theorems say anything about the equilibrium existing in the first place. To guarantee that an equilibrium exists, it suffices that consumer preferences be convex (although with enough consumers this assumption can be relaxed both for existence and the second welfare theorem). Similarly, but less plausibly, convex feasible production sets suffice for existence; convexity excludes economies of scale.Proofs of the existence of equilibrium traditionally rely on fixed-point theorems such as Brouwer fixed-point theorem for functions (or, more generally, the Kakutani fixed￾point theorem for set-valued functions). Another method of proof of existence, global analysis, uses Sard's lemma and the Baire category theorem; this method was pioneered by Gérard Debreu and Stephen Smale.
  • Uniqueness
Although generally (assuming convexity) an equilibrium will exist and will be efficient, the conditions under which it will be unique are much stronger. While the issues are fairly technical the basic intuition is that the presence of wealth effects (which is the feature that most clearly delineates general equilibrium analysis from partial equilibrium) generates the possibility of multiple equilibria. When a price of a particular good changes there are two effects.
First, the relative attractiveness of various commodities changes; and second, the wealth distribution of individual agents is altered. These two effects can offset or reinforce each other in ways that make it possible for more than one set of prices to constitute an equilibrium. There has been much research on conditions when the equilibrium will be unique, or which at least will limit the number of equilibria. One result states that under mild assumptions the number of equilibria will be finite and odd .
Furthermore if an economy as a whole, as characterized by an aggregate excess demand function, has the revealed preference property (which is a much stronger condition than revealed preferences for a single individual) or the gross substitute property then likewise the equilibrium will be unique.
  • Determinacy
Given that equilibria may not be unique, it is of some interest to ask whether any particular equilibrium is at least locally unique. If so, then comparative statics can be applied as long as the shocks to the system are not too large. As stated above, in a regular economy equilibria will be finite, hence locally unique. One reassuring result, due to Debreu, is that "most" economies are regular.
Work by Michael Mandler (1999) has challenged this claim. The Arrow–Debreu– McKenzie model is neutral between models of production functions as continuously differentiable and as formed from (linear combinations of) fixed coefficient processes. Mandler accepts that, under either model of production, the initial endowments will not be consistent with a continuum of equilibria, except for a set of Lebesgue measure zero.

However, endowments change with time in the model and this evolution of endowments is determined by the decisions of agents (e.g., firms) in the model. Agents in the model have an interest in equilibria being indeterminate: "Indeterminacy, moreover, is not just a technical nuisance; it undermines the price-taking assumption of competitive models. Since arbitrary small manipulations of factor supplies can dramatically increase a factor's price, factor owners will not take prices to be parametric.
  • Stability
In a typical general equilibrium model the prices that prevail "when the dust settles" are simply those that coordinate the demands of various consumers for various goods. But this raises the question of how these prices and allocations have been arrived at, and whether any (temporary) shock to the economy will cause it to converge back to the same outcome that prevailed before the shock. This is the question of stability of the equilibrium, and it can be readily seen that it is related to the question of uniqueness. If there are multiple equilibria, then some of them will be unstable. Then, if an equilibrium is unstable and there is a shock, the economy will wind up at a different set of allocations and prices once the convergence process terminates. However stability depends not only on the number of equilibria but also on the type of the process that guides price changes (for a specific type of price adjustment process see Walrasian auction).
Consequently some researchers have focused on plausible adjustment processes that guarantee system stability, i.e., guarantee convergence of prices and allocations to some equilibrium. When more than one stable equilibrium exists, where one ends up will depend on where one begins.
Research building on the Arrow–Debreu–McKenzie model has revealed some problems with the model. The Sonnenschein–Mantel–Debreu results show that, essentially, any restrictions on the shape of excess demand functions are stringent. Some think this implies that the Arrow–Debreu model lacks empirical content. At any rate, Arrow–
Debreu–McKenzie equilibria cannot be expected to be unique, or stable. A model organized around the tâtonnement process has been said to be a model of a centrally planned economy and not a decentralized market economy. Some research has tried to develop general equilibrium models with other processes. In particular, some economists have developed models in which agents can trade at out-of-equilibrium prices and such trades can affect the equilibria to which the economy tends. Particularly noteworthy are the Hahn process, the Edgeworth process and the Fisher process. The data determining Arrow-Debreu equilibria include initial endowments of capital goods. If production and trade occur out of equilibrium, these endowments will be changed and further complicating the picture.
In a real economy, however, trading, as well as production and consumption, goes on out of equilibrium. It follows that, in the course of convergence to equilibrium (assuming that occurs), endowments change. In turn this changes the set of equilibria. Put more succinctly, the set of equilibria is path dependent... [This path dependence] makes the calculation of equilibria corresponding to the initial state of the system essentially irrelevant. What matters is the equilibrium that the economy will reach from given initial endowments, not the equilibrium that it would have been in, given initial endowments, had prices happened to be just.
The Arrow–Debreu model in which all trade occurs in futures contracts at time zero requires a very large number of markets to exist. It is equivalent under complete markets to a sequential equilibrium concept in which spot markets for goods and assets open at each date-state event (they are not equivalent under incomplete markets); market clearing then requires that the entire sequence of prices clears all markets at all times.
A generalization of the sequential market arrangement is the temporary equilibrium structure, where market clearing at a point in time is conditional onexpectations of future prices which need not be market clearing ones.Although the Arrow–Debreu–McKenzie model is set out in terms of some arbitrary numerals, the model does not encompass money. Frank Hahn, for example, has investigated whether general equilibrium models can be developed in which money enters in some essential way. One of the essential questions he introduces, often referred to as the Hahn's problem is : "Can one construct an equilibrium where money has value?" The goal is to find models in which existence of money can alter the equilibrium solutions, perhaps because the initial position of agents depends on monetary prices.
Some critics of general equilibrium modeling contend that much research in these models constitutes exercises in pure mathematics with no connection to actual economies. "There are endeavors that now pass for the most desirable kind of economic contributions although they are just plain mathematical exercises, not only without any economic substance but also without any mathematical value as put by Georgescu-Roegen in one of his paper that assumes more traders in existence than there are points in the set of real numbers.
Although modern models in general equilibrium theory demonstrate that under certain circumstances prices will indeed converge to equilibria, critics hold that the assumptions necessary for these results are extremely strong. As well as stringent restrictions on excess demand functions, the necessary assumptions include perfect rationality of individuals;complete information about all prices both now and in the future; and the conditions necessary for perfect competition. However some results from experimental economics suggest that even in circumstances where there are few, imperfectly informed agents, the resulting prices and allocations may wind up resembling those of a perfectly competitive market (although certainly not a stable general equilibrium in all markets). Frank Hahn defends general equilibrium modeling on the grounds that it provides a negative function. General equilibrium models show what the economy would have to be like for an unregulated economy to be Pareto efficient
General equilibrium theory is a central point of contention and influence between the neoclassical school and other schools of economic thought, and different schools have varied views on general equilibrium theory. Some, such as the Keynesian and Post￾Keynesian schools, strongly reject general equilibrium theory as "misleading" and "useless"; others, such as the Austrian school, show more influence and acceptance of general equilibrium thinking, though the extent is debated. Other schools, such as new classical macroeconomics, developed from general equilibrium theory.In this context, while some criticize positively, some do not.
  • Keynesian and Post-Keynesian
Keynesian and Post-Keynesian economists, and their underconsumptionist predecessors criticize general equilibrium theory specifically, and as part of criticisms of neoclassical economics generally. Specifically, they argue that general equilibrium theory is neither accurate nor useful, that economies are not in equilibrium, that equilibrium may be slow and painful to achieve, and that modeling by equilibrium is "misleading", and that the resulting theory is not a useful guide, particularly for understanding of economic crises. They said let us beware of this dangerous theory of equilibrium which is supposed to be automatically established. A certain kind of equilibrium, it is true, is reestablished in the long run, but it is after a frightful amount of suffering. More methodologically, it is argued that general equilibrium is a fundamentally static analysis, rather than a dynamic analysis, and thus is misleading and inapplicable. The theory of dynamic stochastic general equilibrium seeks to address this criticism.
  • Austrian economists
Whether Austrian economists supports or rejects general equilibrium theory and the precise relationship is unclear. Different Austrian economists have advocated differing positions, which have changed as Austrian economics developed over time. Some new classical economists argue that the work of Friedrich Hayek in the 1920s and 1930s was in the general equilibrium tradition and was a precursor to business cycle equilibrium theory. Others argue that while there are clear influences of general equilibrium on Hayek's thought, and that he used it in his early work, he came to substantially reject it in his later work, post 1937. It is also argued by some that Friedrich von Wieser, along with Hayek, worked in the general equilibrium tradition, while others reject this, finding influences of general equilibrium on the Austrian economists superficial.
  • New classical macroeconomics
While general equilibrium theory and neoclassical economics generally were originally microeconomic theories, New classical macroeconomics builds a macroeconomic theory on these bases. In new classical models, the macroeconomy is assumed to be at its unique equilibrium, with full employment and potential output, and that this equilibrium is assumed to always have been achieved via price and wage adjustment (market clearing). The best-known of such model is Real Business Cycle Theory, in which business cycles are considered to be largely due to changes in the real economy, unemployment is not due to the failure of the market to achieve potential output, but due to equilibrium potential output having fallen and equilibrium unemployment having risen.
  • Socialist economics
Within socialist economics, a sustained critique of general equilibrium theory and neoclassical economics generally is given in Anti-Equilibrium, based on the experiences of János Kornai with the failures of Communist central planning.
General equilibrium theory attempts to explain the behavior of supply, demand, and prices in a whole economy with several or many interacting markets, by seeking to prove that a set of prices exists that will result in an overall (or "general") equilibrium. General equilibrium theory both studies economies using the model of equilibrium pricing and seeks to determine in which circumstances the assumptions of general equilibrium will hold. Also, we have attempted to show what general equilibrium models is all about, its properties , features and critics from various scholars of repute. Also, from the point of view of our discussion, you have learnt that General equilibrium theory both studies economies using the model of equilibrium pricing and seeks to determine in which circumstances the assumptions of general equilibrium will hold.
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