Showing posts with label Educational Journals. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Educational Journals. Show all posts

Wednesday, May 23, 2018


Manufacturing is the process of transforming raw into useable form to create maximum utility. ( Adewale Osunsakin, 2018). More so, it has been argued that the fastest trend through which a nation can achieve sustainable economic growth and development is neither by the level of its endowed material resources, nor that of its vast human resources, but technological innovation, enterprise development and industrial capacity. For instance, despite its poor natural resources, and the hurdles it faced from 1920s chronic inflation, Germany has effectively exploited the manufacturing sector and rose up to become the largest economy in Europe and the fourth largest in the world.

In the modern world, manufacturing sector is regarded as a basis for determining a nation's economic efficiency (Amakom, 2012). However, after the discovery of crude oil in Nigeria in the late 1950s, the nation has shifted from its preeminent developing industrial production base and placed heavy weight on crude oil production (Englama, et al. 2010); not only has this jeopardized its economic activities, it also aggravated the nation's level of unemployment. Nigeria as a giant of Africa has for long been regarded as a nation blessed with abundant human and material resources; however, the underutilization of these potentials has amplified widespread poverty, low standard of living at individual level and rising unemployment in the country as a result of incessant mono-economic practice and drastic neglect of other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, tourism, mining and the manufacturing industry.

In spite of the country's vast oil wealth, the World Bank Development Indicators (2012) has shown that majority of Nigerians are poor with 84.5 percent of the population living on less than two dollar a day. The United Nations Human Development Index (2011) also ranks Nigeria 156 out of 179 countries, which is a significant decrease in its human development ranking of 151 in 2004; and World Bank Development Indicators (2012) have placed Nigeria within the 47 poorest countries of the world. The issue of poverty can be easily traced to mono-economic practice and underutilization of the nation’s endowed resources, especially in manufacturing sector, which could have opened up windows of opportunity in job creation and economic development.

Putting the country back on the path of recovery and growth will require urgently rebuilding deteriorated infrastructure and making more goods and services available to the citizenry at affordable prices. This would imply a quantum leap in output of goods and services. Ogbu (2012) states that no other sector is more important than manufacturing in developing an economy, providing quality employment and wages and reducing poverty. Increasing productivity should be the focus because many other countries that have found themselves in the same predicaments have resolved them through productivity enhancement schemes. For instance, Japan from the end of the World War II and the United States of America from the 1970s have made high productivity the Centre point of their economic planning and the results have been resounding. Also, middle income countries like Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and India have embraced boosting productivity schemes as an integral part of their national planning and today they have made significant in roads into the world industrial markets.

Given the importance of high productivity in boosting economic growth and the standards of living of the people, it is necessary to evaluate the role and performance of the Nigerian manufacturing sector. In the light of the foregoing, there cannot be another appropriate time to evaluate the role of the Nigerian manufacturing sector in the economic growth and the development of the country than now.
The history of industrial development and manufacturing in Nigeria is a classic illustration of how a nation could neglect a vital sector through policy inconsistencies and distractions attributable to the discovery of oil (Adeola, 2005). However, Ogbu (2012) argues that the country’s oil industry is not a major source of employment, and its benefit to the other sectors in the economy is limited since the government has not adequately developed the capacity to pursue the more value-added activities of the petrochemical value chain. As a result, the oil industry does not allow for any agglomeration or technological spillover effects, Ogbu (2012) stresses.

From a modest 4.8% in 1960, manufacturing contribution to GDP increased to 7.2% in 1970 and to 7.4% in 1975. In 1980 it declined to 5.4%, but then surged to a record high of 10.7% in 1985. By 1990, the share of manufacturing in GDP stood at 8.1% but fell to 7.9% in 1992; 6.7% in 1995 and fell further to 6.3% in 1997. As at 2001 the share of manufacturing in GDP dropped to 3.4% from 6.2% in 2000. However, it increased to 4.16% in 2011 which is less than what it was in 1960. Currently, Nigeria’s manufacturing sector’s share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) remains minuscule (CBN, 2011). Compare that to the strong manufacturing sectors in other emerging economies, where structural change has already occurred and where millions have been lifted out of poverty as a result: manufacturing contributes 20 percent of GDP in Brazil, 34 percent in China, 30 percent in Malaysia, 35 percent in Thailand and 28 percent in Indonesia (Ogbu, 2012). The more recent experiences of the East and Southeast Asian economic transformations demonstrate that diversification into manufacturing and industrial production facilitated by what Arthur Lewis calls the “intelligent governments” are critical to poverty reduction.

However, Nigeria has no effective industrial policy that promotes manufacturing; at least not in the sense of policy which provides practical solutions to the difficulties encountered by incipient entrepreneurs or emerging manufacturing firms.

Industrial activities help in solving the basic problems of unemployment, inflation, budget deficit and general economic disequilibrium. It assists to implement the policies of the government that have been directed towards the improvement of local production. It will reduce the continued pressure on balance of payment in spite of the various policy measures taken so far to address the situation.

The service industries (More formally termed: 'tertiary sector of industry' by economists) involve the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers. Such, therefore, include accounting, tradesmanship (like mechanic or plumber services), computer services, restaurants, tourism, etc. Hence, a service Industry is one where no goods are produced whereas primary industries are those that extract minerals, oil etc. from the ground and secondary industries are those that manufacture products, including builders, but not remodeling contractors.
List of service industries
(1)    Tourism
(2)    Transport
(3)    Banking
(4)    Insurance
(5)    Warehousing
(6)    Advertisement

Monday, May 21, 2018


Domestic Trade and International Trade
Domestic or Internal Trade or Home Trade or Home Trade involve the exchange of goods and services among the residents of a country. It includes all trading/selling and buying activities of all types within a particular country. International trade or External trade or foreign trade involves the exchange of goods and services between two or more countries. It is trade among nation, i.e between Nigeria and other countries. People firms, government and agencies exchange goods and services across international boundaries.
International trade can be:-
*Bilateral-trade involving exchange of goods and services among two countries. Each country balances its payments and receipt with each other.
*Multilateral-trade in which a country exchanges goods and services with many other countries.

Similarities Between International Trade And Internal Trade
(1)Both trades involve the use of money as a medium of exchange
(2)Both have to do with some degree of specialization between the trading partners which is the basis of exchange.
(3)Both trades involves the buying and selling of goods and services.
(4)Both trades arise from inequitable distribution of natural endowments and production resources.   
(5)Both trades involve the activities of middle men.

Differences Between International Trade And Internal Trade (1)While International trade takes place across national boundaries, internal trade takes place within the borders of a country.
(2)Internal trade uses local or national currency whereas different currencies are used in foreign trade.
(3)There is no restriction for home trade while foreign trade can be restricted by import/export duties, tariffs, embargoed
(4)International trade is a foreign exchange earner while home trade only generates internal revenue.
(5)Factors of production are freely mobile in home trade, but there are restrictions for such in international trade. e.g labour mobility is subject to immigration laws among countries.(6)Barriers of distance, transport costs are greater in foreign trade than in home trade.
(7)The problems of foreign exchange and balance of payments are peculiar to foreign trade while internal trade has no such problems.
Reasons/ Basis For International Trade
International trade arose from the international specialization and division of labour. These have to be for the following reasons:
1. Uneven distribution or endowment in natural resources of nations such as      minerals. For instance, Nigeria has coal and crude oil; Ghana is endowed with bauxite while Canada is enriched with nickel.
2. Differences in climate and soil which gives rise to the cultivation of different crops.
3. Differences in capital stock which determines the quantity and variety of goods and services each country will be able to produce.
4. Differences in labour skills:There are variations in the volume and quality of labour for productive activities.
5. Differences in technology: Countries advanced in technology can produce more industrial goods than others. E.g. Japan is good in electronic goods; Germany is good in Mercedez Benz cars, Switzerland in watches and China in a variety of items.
6. International trade takes place because no country has attained self sufficiency. For instance Nigeria imports cars, radio, watches etc from Japan while Japan gets Nigeria’s petroleum. The desire to satisfy wants each country cannot produce calls for exchange across countries.
7. The need to create a wider market for a nation’s goods and services is another reason for international trade.
8. International trade is also based on the premises that the cost of production of a commodity differs from one country to another. So a country will choose to import a good if it is cheaper to do so than to produce it.
9. Internal trade is also engaged in because of the desire of nations to improve the standard of living of their citizens.
Barriers to International Trade
There are problems besetting trade among nations. These includes
1.Differences in currency
2.Natural barriers of distance, seas, deserts, etc
3.Differences in language
4.Trade restrictions by some nations
5.Long and sometimes difficult processing of documents for foreign trade
6.Hindrance from political ideologies of different countries
7.Differences in units of weights and measures

Advantages or Merits of International Trade
1.It is a source of revenue for nations
2.It leads to increase in total world output of goods and services
3.It provides a wider market for goods
4.It enhances better standard of living in many nations.
5.It promotes interdependence among nations which is a prospect for world peace and international goodwill
6.It provides employment opportunities for exporters and importers
7.It leads to a more efficient allocation of world productive resources
8.It promote specialization, division of labour and efficiency in production
9.It enhances world economic growth   and social progress
10.It leads to increased foreign investments in West African nations
11.It puts in check private monopoly power as importation of goods makes room for competition.

Disadvantages or Demerits of International Trade
Inspite of its numerous advantages, there are some shortcomings of international trade. These are:
1.It may lead to overdependence on other countries
2.It negatively affects the growth of infant industries
3.It negatively impacts on the cultural and moral values of a country and leads to decadence in social norms (e.g. indecent and immoral fashions imports into Nigeria)
4.It can reduce the efforts of a nation towards attaining self-sufficiency.
5.It can generate unemployment as high importation may reduce the level of production of domestic industries.
6.Unrestricted foreign trade may lead to balance of payment deficit i.e when import is higher than import.
7.It makes less developed countries become dumping grounds for all kinds of goods including dangerous and harmful ones such as arms and ammunitions and alcohols.

The Principle Of Comparative Cost Advantages
The law or theory or principle of comparative cost advantage state that a country will be better of, if it specializes in the production of commodities in which it has the greatest comparative cost advantage over others and exchange them for commodities in which it has comparative cost disadvantage.
This law is based on the premises of the law of opportunity cost. A country is said to have comparative advantage over others in the production of a commodity in which it has the lowest opportunity cost than others. The real cost of production in terms of the alternative goods forgone is used in comparison with that of other nations.The principle operates on some basic assumptions that:
1.There are only two trading countries
2.Only two items are produced
3.There is free flow and mobility of factors of production
4.There is no balance of trade between the two countries
5.There is no transport cost
6.Technology and costs are constant
7.Labour is the only factor of production

Tuesday, May 15, 2018


The paper money presently in use, originated from the receipts the goldsmiths issued to people who kept gold and other valuables with them. In the olden days, when there were no banks, people kept their gold and other valuables with the goldsmith. As the name indicates, the goldsmith deals with gold which is a very valuable and rare commodity. Because of the costly nature of gold, the goldsmith had a place called strong-room where gold and other valuable commodities and documents were kept for safe custody. With his strong-room, the goldsmith started receiving valuable commodities from people for safe-keeping. Receipts were issued to those who deposited their valuable as evidence and they paid the goldsmith for his services. As time went on, people started using the receipts issued by the goldsmith for the exchange of goods and services since they will be honored by the goldsmith on presentation. When the goldsmith discovered that some people who deposited valuables with him do come for them in a short period of time, he started enticing others in form of interest to deposit their gold and other valuables with him. He(goldsmith) also started lending these valuable commodities out to other people on short term basis on interest rate. This exchange of goods and services with the receipts issued by the goldsmith continued until the receipts were modernized and re-named money. Today, money has another form other than the paper money, called coin. We also have other forms as representative or token money. The origin of money really came as the aftermath of the difficulties or problems of trade by barter. People were forced to fashion out a generally acceptable means of exchange through a long process of trial and error. Money has come to replace that cumbersome means of exchange called trade by barter. It does not mean that money drove in the final nail on the coffin of trade by barter because the trade of exchange of goods for goods and services for services has been baptized and called counter-trade. Such play on words is in perfect character with the improbable science called Economics.
Trade by barter may be defined as direct system and practice of exchanging goods for goods and services for services.
(1) The difficulty of double coincidence of wants
(2) It waste time and energy
(3) Difficulty in assessing the value the value of commodities
(4) Exchange become uninteresting and unexciting
(5) It does not encourage large  quantity and variety purchases
(6) It does not encourage deferred payment
(7) It does not encourage installment payments
(8) It does not encourage division of labor
(9) There is no lending and borrowing
(10) It discourage large scale production
(11) Miscellaneous problem: These difficulties include: the non-durability, portability, divisibility, homogeneity; of the commodities that were used in exchange under trade by barter.
Money may be defined as anything that is generally acceptable as a medium of exchange for making payments, settlement of debts or other business obligations. Before the introduction of money, the type of exchange that took place was Trade-by-barter.

The functions of money are the following:
1.A medium of exchange: With money, you no longer need to look for somebody who has what you want and who at the same time wants what you want. Instead, money is used as a means of payment for goods and services and for the settlement of debt.
2.It measures  values of goods and service: Money is therefore a parameter for determining the worth of goods and services
3.A store of values: Money is now used in storing wealth, unless there is inflation, money stored or saved retains its values for many years.
4.A standard  of Deferred Payment: As a result of the durability of money, one can buy some commodities now and pay in future
5.A unit of Account: Money makes accounting possible because the worth of goods and services is measured in money.
6.Money commands Variety: The existence of money encourages large quantity  and variety purchases of goods and services
7.Money encourages Installment Payments: This is possible because money is divisible.
8.Money encourages division of labor: With the existence of money, people tend to concentrate on certain occupations and aspects of production processes, leaving other aspects to other people, with the hope of buying the commodities with money they will earn as the reward for their services.
9.Encouragement of lending and borrowing: The existence of money gave rise to bank loans and overdrafts and other forms of lending and borrowing.

(1)Coins: A coin is metal money with definite amount and weight issued and stamped by the central authority responsible for the issuance. The coins in use are kobo and naira, which are in different denominations.
(2)Paper Money: As the name indicates, it is in form of paper note which originated from receipts the goldsmiths issued to people who kept gold and other valuables with them.
(3)Bank money: This is the money one keeps in one’s bank account for safe-keeping, also called bank deposit which can be given back to the owner on demand.
(4)Foreign money: It is the money of other countries of the world which serves as money in the foreign exchange market. Some of the most popular foreign exchange is: Dollar, Pounds sterling, Deutschmark, etc., and they enable a citizen of a country to buy items from other countries where he is resident at the time.
(5)Token Money: This is money whose intrinsic worth is less than its nominal or face value. That is, its value as a piece of metal or note is not identical with its value as piece of money. Britain’s silver coins were replaced with coins of curpo-nickel because their value rose above their face value or purchasing power value as a result of high rise in the value of silver during the two world wars. As a result of the rise in value of silver, there was danger that the silver coins might be illegally melted.
(6)Commodity Money: Different commodities were used in different parts of the world as medium of exchange and they are presently called commodity money. These have two values as money and as commodities. These commodities include: cowries, gold, diamond, silver, shark teeth, cows, manilas etc., and presently some of them have gone into oblivion as media of exchange.
(7)Gold-Backed Money: This is money that can easily be converted or changed into gold by the central authority that issues money if its holder so desires. This system of exchanging paper notes or coins for gold originate from the goldsmith who assured people that the receipt they  issued to them can easily be exchanged for gold. Nigerian currency before it was decimalized was tied to gold and it was clearly expressed on its face.
(8) Legal Tender: A legal tender is money which is backed with the force of law in a country which makes it generally acceptable as a medium of exchange. It is an offence for anybody in a country to reject a legal tender. However, some forms of legal tender have limit in their legality; for instance, in Nigeria, Naira and Kobo serve as legal tender. Kobo which are in form of coins serve as legal tender to some extent.
(9) Fiduciary Note Issue: This is the type of money that is not backed by either gold or any foreign currency. Acceptance of fiduciary note issue is based on faith and not because it is backed by gold or any strong currency like dollar or pounds sterling.
(10) Representative Money: This is a document or instrument used in lieu of legal tender but not fully and freely acceptable. Document or instrument like cheque, postal and money orders, stamps, promissory notes, bills of exchange, etc., that sometimes act as money are called representative money. These documents are not backed by the force of law to be generally acceptable and therefore, are not legal tender (money). However, there representative money remove the hazard involved in carrying physical cash and also ease transfer of money from one place to another.
These are materials or articles used as money but not backed up by law, generally acceptable and legal tender. They also lack qualities possessed by money. They serve as a means of payment to some extent and ease the burden of carrying physical cash which is hazardous. They include; Cheques, Postal order, Money order, Postal order, Bank Order or Standing Order, Bankdrafts, Credit Transfer, Certified cheque, Mail and Telegraphic Transfers, Promissory Note, Bill of Exchange.
The following are the characteristics of money
1.    General Acceptability: It must be acceptable to the people of that country, community or a certain territorial area.
2.    Absolute Homogeneity: The article used as money must be the same in all parts of the country where it is being accepted as a medium of exchange.
3.    Easily Recognizable: It is this quality that make people to detect which is the real and which is the counterfeit money.
4.    Divisibility: It must be capable of being divided into smaller units which facilitates exchange of goods and services.
5.    Portability: Money must be something that can be easily carried about from one place to another.
6.    Relatively scarce: Money should not be in excess or too much in circulation or easy to come by otherwise, it will lose its value.
7.    Durability: An article that serves as money must be something that can stand the test of time and not something that will suffer from wear and tear.
8.    Stability: This stability in value of money makes business to be predictable and encourages lending and borrowing of money
9.    Storability: It must be something that can be stored for a long time, without losing its value.
10.    Malleability: Anything that will serve as money must be something that can be stamped and designed to show its value and origin.
11.    No intrinsic Value: The commodity that will serve as money should have little or no value in itself as opposed to its value of exchange.
12.    Cheap to Maintain: Money must have the quality of costing nothing to keep and maintain.
13.    Controllable Supply: Money must have controllable supply which will make it easy for the sole authority i.e. CBN to monitor the quantity in circulation.


1. Development of Petroleum Industry
2. Contribution of Petroleum to the Nigerian Economy
3. Role of NNPC and OPEC in the exploration, production, refining, marketing and distribution of petroleum products
Oil exploration in Nigeria dates back to 1908 with the appearance of oil in the present Ondo state.  Another exploratory activity took off in 1937 by an Anglo Dutch consortium that served as a fore-runner of the present-day Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited, Shell D’Arcy.  Oil was first discovered at Oloibiri in Rivers state in 1956.The most important landmarks in the history of oil development in Nigeria were the Hydro-Carbon oil refinery Act of 1965 and the Petroleum Decree of 1967.  The Hydro –carbon Act of 1965 approved the license for the first refinery at Elese Eleme near Port-Harcourt, while the Petroleum Decree (1967) gave the right to fix petroleum prices to government. Nigeria has since returned to this status quo since December 1998. The Shell BP undertook the preliminary geological reconnaissance and intensified its geophysical survers  in the 1946 -1951 period. In order to increase the pace of oil exploration and to ensure that the country was not dependent on one oil company or nation, Shell’s sole concession right over the country was reviewed and exploration rights were granted to companies of other nationalities. Examples of oil companies are Mobil, Gulf, Agip, Tenneco and Texaco/Chevron. They were allowed to join the explorers for oil in the onshore and offshore area of Nigeria.The period 1975 – 1980 was considered as the golden era of the oil industry in Nigeria.
In 1977, the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC) was established by the NNPC Act No 33 through the merger of the Nigerian National Oil Company (NNOC) and the then Ministry of Petroleum Resources.  This new body, NNPC started to perform both operational as well as regulatory functions. In 1979, Nigeria nationalized the Nigerian subsidiary of British Petroleum because it was supplying crude oil to South Africa.

[2] Contribution of Petroleum to the Nigerian Economy.
Positive Contributions of Petroleum to the Nigerian Economy:
1.    It increases Nigeria’s National Income greatly.
2.    There is increment in the income per capita of Nigerians.
3.    When the first commercial shipment of oil was made in 1958, petroleum has become a major foreign exchange earner.
4.    As a result of provision of more employment opportunities, increase in per capita income, development of basic infrastructures, etc the standard of living of the people of Nigeria has improved.
5.    Oil has played a significant role in shaping Nigeria’s foreign policy since she gained independence in 1960.

Although there were positive contributions of petroleum to the Nigerian economy, there are also negative effects which include the following among others.
1.    One of the political woes of the discovery of oil in Nigeria is political instability.  All the frequent coups, change of government that occurred in Nigeria had oil undertone.
2.    As a result of oil exploration, together with the fear in many quarters of possible earthquake occurring in those areas, many oil producing areas in Nigeria have been eroded.
3.    There is shortage of raw materials as another negative effect of the neglect of agriculture as a result of the discovery and exportation of petroleum in Nigeria.
4.    Oil exploration in Nigeria has caused soil, water and air pollution in many parts of the country.
5.    One of the immediate consequences of the neglect of agriculture in Nigeria as a result of the discovery and exportation of oil is the decline in food production.

In order for government to strengthen and establish its control in the oil industry, the Nigerian National Oil Corporation (NNOC) was established by a decree in 1971. In the same year, Nigeria joined the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) as the 11th member  country. At that time, the Ministry of Petroleum Resources whose functions were mainly regulatory was also running concurrently with the NNOC. It was not until 1st April, 1977 that a merger between the NNOC and the Ministry of Petroleum Resources created the Nigerian National Petroleum Corporation (NNPC).
1.    Oil refining in Nigeria is done under the watchful eagle eye of NNPC
2.    In the area of man-power training of Nigerians, crucial role was played by NNPC in order to ensure that they occupy managerial, professional and supervisory grades in all the oil companies operating in the country.
3.    Their product movement section is responsible for planning operations to pump products from the source of supply to various destinations in a safe, economic and controlled manner and ensuring adequate stocks in the depots to meet tanker-truck loading demands.
4.    They oversee all the activities of all other companies licensed to engage in oil activities in the country to ensure compliance with the laws and regulations relevant to the oil industry.
In reaction to the outrageous and unprecedented exploitation by the oil extracting multinational companies, which at that time were controlling oil operations in the oil industry in the host countries?  The outcome of the meeting of Iran, Iraq, Kuwait, Saudi Arabia, Venezuela from September 10-14, 1960 aimed at protecting their mutual interest and to counter the atrocious act of foreign oil companies who sell oil in their own interest was the formation of the Organisation of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC).  Nigeria joined the organization in 1971. Its membership has risen to thirteen as at date. There are some roles played by OPEC in the production, refining and marketing of petroleum.

The Roles of OPEC in the Production, Refining and Marketing of Petroleum Products.
1.    OPEC has been able to maintain relatively stable price of petroleum.
2.    OPEC played direct role in the exploration and production of oil by directing its members in June, 1968 in order to acquire participating interest in such activities in their territories.
3.    Another major role played by OPEC is re-directing the political imbalance between the Third World countries and the so-called First World nations.
4.    Through the activities of OPEC, it has been able to make improvement in energy efficiency particularly in major industrialized countries.
5.    Also, OPEC ensures efficient and regular supply of oil to the world market.

Prophecy for 2019

I congratulate you because you witness year 2019 alive! I now decree the instant fulfillment and firm establishment of the following scrip...