Showing posts with label Educational Journals. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Educational Journals. Show all posts

The Status Of Accidents In History

This is one of the objections raised against causal explanation in history.  The protagonists further hold that history is” a series of events determined by chance, incidences, and attributable to the most causal.”  It is clear that those who hold this view also admit that historical events have causes. The examples given by E.H Carr Anthony’s infatuation with Cleopatra, Bajazet’s attack of gout, King Alexander of Greece monkey bite and Trotsky’s fever to illustrate what the believers in the theory have in mind) clearly show the cause/effect relationship, though they are regarded as accidents.  Carr then deposes that: “These so-called accidents in history represents a sequence of cause and effect interrupting and so to speak, clashing with the sequence which the historian is primarily concerned to investigate.”
Isaiah Berlin confuses accident

Human Resource Development For Library And Information Professionals

Introduction:
Today the world is witnessing the information era where knowledge is power. With more knowledge you have the power to access information globally through the internet. There is high demand from all works of life for filtered, processed, specifically packaged, tailor made and value added information. The information sector as a whole and university libraries which are the major partner of the information sector are undergoing serious challenges and pressure to provide right information to the right user at the right time also at the right cost. The present information environment has to enhance the expectations of users for timely, relevant, completely and easily accessible and tangible information services in the same vein as it is practiced for profit or commercial purposes.

According to the 5 M’s of management (i.e. Men, Money, Machine, Material and Methods) men is the most important means for the optimum utilization of other resources. In other to provide information products, services and consultations according to the needs, desires and expectation of the users we need committed, competent, confident, dynamic, educated, motivated, and trained employees. It is this context that has brought Human Resource Development to the centre stage of library and information management process.
Concept of Human Resource Development (HRD)
Developing human resource means developing Human Beings who can change things, and be in tune with the ever changing information environment by adapting themselves or adapting to things and idea according to the environment in which they find themselves in. Human Resource Development is the process of helping people to acquire the following competencies in a planed and continuous way.
  1. To sharpen their capabilities this is required of them to perform at various capacities both at their present and expected roles in future.
  2. To develop general capabilities as individuals and exploit their inner potential for their own and organizational purposes.
  3. To develop an organizational culture and inculcate right attitudes towards customers.
  4. To equip clearly precisely about all the process, procedures, practices and other aspects of the job.
  5. To develop capacity and competence for higher work and greater responsibilities and accountability.
Concept of Human Resource Development for Information Staff
Top performers of the world treat their employees as assets to be developed rather than commodities to be used.
The theory is centered on investment in human development. Neither Machines nor stagnant, demotivated and alienated employees help to achieve the objectives of the organization.   
Libraries are non profit making service agencies having and human resource development effect on the community to be served. Customer is an integral part of the whole service delivery system. Like other services libraries are expected to remain a few steps ahead of its clients. Moreover, the shifting paradigms of customer’s service, technology (IT), financial management, efficiency, effectiveness, economy, reputation and recognition have forced the librarians to redesign there services and organizational structures to cope with the challenges posed by information environment in view of the above, human resource development instrument is needed for competency development, climate building and innovation development. Human resource development will improve the processes and process improvements leads to improvement in staff and staff development leads to all development. Human resource development instrument helps staff to sense, serve and satisfy the needs, wants and expectations of customers.
Human Resource Development: An Agenda for Library and Information Staff
Purpose of every organization is the development of the organization of the parent organization, and to provide products and services to suit the dictates of the environment.
All the above developments start from the personal development of the individuals. Libraries are service enterprises aimed at rendering best possible information service, consultations and products to the satisfaction, desires, and expectations of the users. If this goal is to be achieved some human resources development interventions are to be implemented.
Education:
Training aims to standardize behavior in a predictable set of circumstances, but education enables him to exercise judgment and decisions. Education, undoubtedly continues to remain the most outstanding development such that an educated person can acquire skills, attitudes, values and interest as would enable him/her become the subject of development. Qualitative based on commitment, team work and human touch needs both body and soul, heart and hand i.e. wisdom, compassion and labour. All staff members should be given the chance to improve their qualifications through Open Universities.
Upgrading of Technical Skills
Most of the library staff may be qualified in traditional library science and technique, and still might not be good at using of modern I.C.T facilities. All of them need to be trained and exposed on how to use the latest information gadget with special reference to the effective way of storing as well as retrieval of information. The new mind set, knowledge, skills would bring qualitative change in their service. Library automation and information technology is the major area of training and continuing education.
Role of Libraries
The library is a service organization which is mostly concerned with the methods, skills and system for the acquisition storage, preservation, retrieval and use of literature. The main concerned of the library has always been determined primarily by the needs of those it serves and by the fields of literature it handles.
Libraries increases productivity and performance through literature searching and reading. It also accelerates changes. In technology business and social activities and aids the development of new knowledge and also increases idea and provides new insight in improving competences with current information.
Libraries are of greater help to the serious research worker in rapid development.
Librarian
    The librarian is one who has the care of a library and its contents, selection of the books, documents and non-book materials which comprise its stock and providing information and loan services to meet the needs of its users. The librarian also oversees the maintenance of the library service; develop appropriate service for legal practice, set up new library new indexing system and introducing new technology responsibility for archives and internal microfilming programme.
Information Service
    This is service provided by or for special library which draw attention to information possessed in the library or information department in anticipation of demand, this is done by preparing; and circulating news sheet, literature surveys, reading lists, abstracts, particulars of articles in current periodicals, organize, manage and develop information service develop sound understanding of information requirement and set up technical information service.
Skills for organizational System, Structure and Procedures  
Library and information services are encountered with change in the service rendering mechanism, and a matching change in its operational modalities and methods will also be imminent. Some methods have to be developed for service aspects. Exposure to these aspects of services and user friendly methods, systems and procedures are quite essential for changing library management scenario.              
Managerial Skills
    No doubt information technology (IT) dramatically influenced the library product, services, reading management decision support system, electronic spread sheets, and expert system. But at the same time one need to know why individuals with more or less technical knowledge and working under a given kind of environment differ greatly in terms of producing the results. Apart from the technical expertise ones managerial skills certainly determine the efficiency, effectiveness and the quality of output which are quite important in our system. Hence all those concerned with library management should acquire managerial skills on the following important themes through specific management training programmes                                                                                                 
  • Leadership: Beyond power and authority and based on voluntary compliance.
  • Empowerment: The act of providing knowledge, authority, training, facilities and resource to individuals.
  • Team work, Trust and Quality circles.
  • Time management.
  • Mind Sets: Organizational culture and attitudes.
  • Resource management.
  • Being dynamic, creative and innovative.
  • Human relations.
  • Change and conflict management.
  • Intrinsic motivation, recognition and total involvement.
  • Professional and personal competencies.
  • Performance Assessment.
  • Vision, mission, goal, objectives and values.
  • Role analysis, job description, accountability and responsibility.
  • Planning organizing, directing and controlling.
  • Customer orientation and customer care based on excellence and humanization.
  • Organisational learning, Bench making and reengineering.
  • Reviews, discussions, feedback, counseling sessions.
  • Communication policies.
  • Job enrichment and job rotation programmes.
  • Human Resource Development information and manpower forecasting.
Interpersonal Relationships
     Relationships at work are crucial to organizational success as well as individual well being. Good relationships make the most horrible jobs tolerable or even enjoyable, while gets killed by poor relationships.
    Besides, organizations rely heavily on team work. Individual contribution does count in an organization, but critical to organizational well-being is a team member’s contribution to teamwork and results.
    It is essential for you as a new entrant to get along well with other team members, as also members of other teams i.e. intra department and inter-department team work and work relationship.
     Therefore, in your effort to create an impactful and credible reputation, your ability to get along with others, as also your interpersonal relationships skills assume critical importance. It is of little use if you are good; intelligent, sharp, and committed. It is of little use if you are unable to get along with others in your workplace.  
Two Important Parameter of Interpersonal Relationships
  • A good level of self esteem and self-worth.
  • Related and relationships.
People who are uncomfortable with themselves are uncomfortable with others and teamwork suffers. Create a high level of self – comfort and self-trust, only then will you find it easy to trust others and be comfortable with them.
Conclusion
  Information technology (IT) has become pervasive in all walks of life. It is changing, the way people think, work and do business. Information has become a strategic global resource for user activities at all levels. In todays information environment, the delivery of information products, services and consultation depends as much on the providers ability to access local and global information as much o n education, knowledge, background and local conditions. In view of the above Human Resource Development mechanisms of continuing education, training in (IT) and managerial skills through seminars, workshops, short course which improve the work processes and will enhance the professional and personal competence, compatibility and capability of the library staff in meeting the organizational goals and delight of the users and pride of workmanships.
REFERENCES
Da Bas, K. C and Gill, N. S., “Managing quality in University Libraries in Kumar, R.P.Ed sustainable library and information services. Delhi 1997.
Eaglen, A, Buying books; a how-to-do-it manual for librarians, no 4 New York; Neal Schuman 1989.
Harrods, L. M, Harrods librarians glossary of terms used in librarianship, documentation and book crafts and reference book. 7th edition – England, Gower Publishing Company ltd 1990.
Oketunji, I., Managing Information and Communication Technology in the knowledge Age. Pace setting agenda for libraries of developing economy: A compendium of papers presented at 39th National Conference of Nigeria Library Association held at Owerri
Nwachukwu, C. C., Management theory and practice: Africana first publishers limited Onitsha, Nigeria.        
Ramaiah, C. K., An overview of electronic books: a bibliography. The electronic library 23 (1), 1744, 2005.
Rao, T. V, Strategies of developing human resources: experiences from 14 organizations, Ahmedabad, Indian Institute of Management working paper.
The international dictionary of English language 1998 mass: Springfield.

Library and Information Services Through Work Integration and Oriented Training

ABSTRACT
This paper reviews concepts of library and information services that can improve professionals training of librarians. The focus on Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) has been shown to be effectives and has become a necessary condition for the Award of Diplomas and Degree Certificates in the specifics disciplines in most institutions in accordance with education police of the Federal Government of Nigeria. The concept of Work Integrated and Oriented Training (WIOT), which is aimed at continuous occupational skill development and training of young professionals in early stages of their career is suggested. Similarly, the concept of Librarian Industrial Work Experience Scheme (LIWES) suggested is aimed at librarians, to bring transformation to industry and higher institutions as it can enhance and strengthen academic and industrial collaboration for the overall benefit of the nation. The paper shows that if and when these ideals are properly implemented, they will go a long way to enhance the achievement of a more qualitative and result oriented and information services for the advancement of Nigeria’s institution.
Keywords: Library and Information Services, work integrated oriented training, Librarian Industrial Works Experience Scheme (LIWES).
INTRODUCTION
The need for library and information services and re-training of personnel is vital for industrial and economic growth of any Nation. Technology and business world are not static but evolving with each passing second with research and product development to achieve leading edge and marked advantage. Thus, it is highly essential that employees are regularly updated in their knowledge and skill in order to achieve improved productivity and efficient and sustained business environment which are desirable indices of most investors. The success of Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) in bridging the gap between the theoretical knowledge impacted in tertiary institutions and the practical experience of the work environment cannot be overemphasized.
SIWES provide opportunity for students to familiarize themselves and be exposed to practical work related to their course of studies, thereby supplementing and strengthening and their theoretical knowledge. The logical extension from SIWES which is primarily for student is the concept of Work Integrated and Oriented Training which is aimed at young graduate professionals in early stages of career.
The concept and vision of WIOT is to encourage continuous occupational skills development and training. It is widely known that when a tree stops growing it start decaying. This is also tree of knowledge and business. Learning must increase hourly. After graduation and securing employment, most young graduate assume that they have arrived especially with fat pay cheques which their parent never dreamt of. Except for job-driven ones, most of them assume that further training was not needed. They assume that training and research were only for those in academic environment. However, the truth is that as a result of market competition and innovations, new technology and new methods of production is always emerging.
Consequently each company is striving not only to stay in business but also to have leading edge over their increasing competitors. They realize the huge potential in young professionals and they invest heavily on them for future dividends.
The objective of this paper is to sensitize information services awareness on the concept and beneficial work integration and oriented training and beneficial practice of SIWES, WIOT and TIWES so as to facilitate synergy and all-round commitment of young librarian profession to work integrated learning that could enhance and improve the Nigeria educational and National development.
                                      The Concept of Library
A Library is a social institution. As such to serve several purposes.
  1. It should help the life-young self-education of one and all.
  2. It should furnish up-to-date facts and information on all subjects to one and all.
  3. It should work for continued social well-being, as the agency in charge of all socialized recorded thought.
  4. It should contribute to productivity-drive by informing top-managements of the latest trends in diverse enterprises by ploughing back into the minds of researchers, designers and technologists every piece of relevant new thought, promptly and pin-pointedly.
  5. It should provide to one and all a harmless and elevating use of leisure.
Thus a library has educational, informational, political, economic, industrial, cultural and antiquarian functions.  
These principles were formulated in 1928 as the five laws of Library Science. It was published in a book in 1931
Here are the Five Laws:
  1. Books are for use.
  2. Every reader his book.
  3. Every books its reader.
  4. Save the time of the reader.
  5. Library is a growing organism.
Concept of Librarianship: Roles and Responsibility.
A librarian is an information professional trained in library and information science, which is the organization and management of information services or materials for those with information needs. Typically, librarians work in public or university library and media centre. Some librarians are independent entrepreneurs working as information specialized capacities. Librarians may be categorized as a public, school, correctional, special, independent or academic librarian.
Traditionally, librarian have been associated with collection of books, journals, newspapers, magazines, audio recordings(both musical and spoken-words), map manuscripts, photographs and other graphic materials, bibliographic databases, web searching and digital resources.
Librarians often provide other information services, including computer provision and training, coordination of public programs, basic literacy education, assistive equipment for people with disabilities, and help with finding and using community resources.
 The Concept of Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES)
The Student Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES) was initiated in 1973 by the Industrial Training Fund (ITF). This was in response to the mandate given to the ITF through Decree 47 of 971, charging it with the responsibility of promoting and encouraging the acquisition of skill in industry and commerce with the view to generating a pool of trained indigenous manpower to meet the needs of the economy..
SIWES has come to be recognized as the major avenue of bridging the gaps between the theory acquired by students of tertiary institutions essential to the technological and economic development of Nigeria. Since its introduction by the ITF in 1973, the scheme has gone through series of reforms and restricting. For instance, its management has changed hands from the ITF to the various regulatory agencies. National Universities Commission (NUC), National Board for Technical Education (NBTE) and National Commission for Colleges of Education (NCCE) and back to the ITF. Similarly, the structure and operational framework have been reviewed, streamlined and made more functional at the various levels of its operations. Following the resumption of management of SIWES by the ITF in 1984, the scheme had witnessed rapid expansion. Between 1985 and 1995, the numbers of institutions and student participating in SIWES rose to 141 57.433 respectively.
The concept of Work Integrated and Oriented Training (WIOT)
In order to fully realize the social-economic development of the Nation, the logical extension from SIWES is therefore the concept of Work Integrated Oriented Training (WIOT), which is aimed at continuous occupational skills development and training of young professionals in early stage of their career. In this pursuit, the key players are the public and private sectors the young professionals and the higher institutions of learning. It is a strategy through which the academic and work experience are formally integrated through structured programmers that will be developed, executed and supervised by higher institutions in collaboration with their commercial/industrial partners. There is a need for higher institution to tailor their curriculum to meet industrial, commercial as well as government needs. With the current government policy encouraging higher institutions to source funds from other sources, they will be obliged to form cooperative partnerships with public and private sectors and local communities in order to deliver research outputs that will meet industrial, commercial and societal need. In the case of WIOT, there will necessarily be the need to have a workplace supervisor or mentor.
There a lot of benefits to be derived by all stake holders. For the young professionals, such training could be go a long way to enhance registration with the Library Registration Council of Nigeria (LRCN) for the registration of librarians in Nigeria. It could also bring about the shaping of their professional skill and competent that will result in improved efficiency and productivity. For the employers, it will definitely improve staff efficiency and productivity, and also enhance stability and dedication of the work fore. There will be constant injection of new technology and innovative ideas from both researchers and field practitioners. For the librarians and researchers, it could lead to direct research grants from the employers.
The Concept of Librarian Industrial Works Experience Scheme (LIWES)
Development policies, there is need to ensure that those that are responsible for training the young to enhance the success of educational and national professional librarians are themselves updated. This is where it becomes necessary for librarians to undergo Industrial Work Experience Scheme.
The idea was originally conceived by NUC which organized a workshop and a pioneering scheme at the University of Jos in 2005. The Librarian Industrial Work Experience Scheme (LIWES) was conceived primarily to enable Professional Librarians garner and exchange experiences with professionals in academic and subsequently improve their curriculum delivery in the University system. While at the industries, the Librarians would be expected to engage in hands-on involvement with the industrial processes or in industry based research relevant to the academic discipline of their specialization. Industries are expected to benefit from the experience of the Librarian in conceptual matters which could be utilized to improve their activities. The scheme is expected to engender collaboration between institution of higher learning and industry in problem-solving research and in training manpower needs of such industries some of the objectives as outline in as follows:
  1. To help the life-long self education of one and all.
  2. To promote increased relevance of subject materials taught at Universities to the work situation in related field.
  3. To enable Librarian obtain a clearer picture of industrial if regarding opportunities and challenges.
  4. To reinforce the subject taught in classroom with the practical professional knowledge obtained in academic.
  5. To provide Librarians with insights into work environments and the skills necessary for success of students after graduation
  6. To foster greater understanding between professional librarian and people in academic thereby improving university-industry relations; and
  7. To promote information dissemination and development of collaborative training programmes and research for national development.
There are three important points that could be drawn from the communiqué that was issued at the conclusion of the NUC workshop, which are follows:
  • Eligibility: All cadres of academic staff for participation in SIWES are eligible to participate in TIWES. However, preference should be given to junior academic staffs without previous industrial experience or to more senior ones whose industrial experiences are outdated.
  • Duration: The duration of TIWES should be three months so that it can be carried out during the university long vacation period. This will be without prejudice to the one year sabbatical leave that academic staffs are currently entitled.
  • Funding: For the scheme to be successful, the Government and industries should provide the funding just in the same way SIWES is funding through Industrial Training Fund (ITF).
There will be need to set up a supervisory body whose member are drawn from university and industries. At the end of their attachments, beneficiaries would be required to submit comprehensive reports similar to their SIWES attachments. Student final year projects can spring up from such reports and can be utilized to build collaborative work with the industries.
DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION
The objective of Librarians Industrial Work Experience Scheme was primarily to enable library support new research and teaching initiatives through the timely acquisition of needed library and information resources and exchange experiences with professionals in the field and subsequently improve their curriculum delivery in the university system. The scheme will ensure that subject materials taught at universities are relevant and related to current industrial and academic needs of the nation.
In conclusion, the concepts of SIWES, WIOT, and LIWES could go a long way to facilitate synergy and all-round commitment of young professionals to work integrated learning. If and when these ideas are properly implemented, they can have the potential to enhance and improve efficiency and academic input and productivity. It will also enhance and improve teaching, learning and researches techniques and capability of lecturers, librarians that will have opportunities of bridging the gap between theory and practical.   
REFERENCES
  1. Aina, L.O. (2002) research in information science: An African perspective. University of Bostswana, Gaboron, Botswana
  2. Mafe, O.A.T. (2014) Students Industrial Work Experience Scheme (SIWES).Guide to successful participation in SIWES
  3. Raghavan, K.S. and Prasad, K.N. (2009) Library and Information Systems. From Alexandrian Heritage to social Networking (Essays in Honor of Prof. S. Parthasarathy) Sarada Ragananthan Endowment for Library Science: Bangalore.
  4. Stueart, R.D. and Moran, B.B. (1998) Library and Information Centre management’ Libraries unlimited INC. Colorrador.

MANUFACTURING AND SERVICE INDUSTRIES

Manufacturing is the process of transforming raw into useable form to create maximum utility. ( Adewale Osunsakin, 2018). More so, it has been argued that the fastest trend through which a nation can achieve sustainable economic growth and development is neither by the level of its endowed material resources, nor that of its vast human resources, but technological innovation, enterprise development and industrial capacity. For instance, despite its poor natural resources, and the hurdles it faced from 1920s chronic inflation, Germany has effectively exploited the manufacturing sector and rose up to become the largest economy in Europe and the fourth largest in the world.

In the modern world, manufacturing sector is regarded as a basis for determining a nation's economic efficiency (Amakom, 2012). However, after the discovery of crude oil in Nigeria in the late 1950s, the nation has shifted from its preeminent developing industrial production base and placed heavy weight on crude oil production (Englama, et al. 2010); not only has this jeopardized its economic activities, it also aggravated the nation's level of unemployment. Nigeria as a giant of Africa has for long been regarded as a nation blessed with abundant human and material resources; however, the underutilization of these potentials has amplified widespread poverty, low standard of living at individual level and rising unemployment in the country as a result of incessant mono-economic practice and drastic neglect of other sectors of the economy such as agriculture, tourism, mining and the manufacturing industry.

In spite of the country's vast oil wealth, the World Bank Development Indicators (2012) has shown that majority of Nigerians are poor with 84.5 percent of the population living on less than two dollar a day. The United Nations Human Development Index (2011) also ranks Nigeria 156 out of 179 countries, which is a significant decrease in its human development ranking of 151 in 2004; and World Bank Development Indicators (2012) have placed Nigeria within the 47 poorest countries of the world. The issue of poverty can be easily traced to mono-economic practice and underutilization of the nation’s endowed resources, especially in manufacturing sector, which could have opened up windows of opportunity in job creation and economic development.

Putting the country back on the path of recovery and growth will require urgently rebuilding deteriorated infrastructure and making more goods and services available to the citizenry at affordable prices. This would imply a quantum leap in output of goods and services. Ogbu (2012) states that no other sector is more important than manufacturing in developing an economy, providing quality employment and wages and reducing poverty. Increasing productivity should be the focus because many other countries that have found themselves in the same predicaments have resolved them through productivity enhancement schemes. For instance, Japan from the end of the World War II and the United States of America from the 1970s have made high productivity the Centre point of their economic planning and the results have been resounding. Also, middle income countries like Hong Kong, South Korea, Singapore and India have embraced boosting productivity schemes as an integral part of their national planning and today they have made significant in roads into the world industrial markets.

Given the importance of high productivity in boosting economic growth and the standards of living of the people, it is necessary to evaluate the role and performance of the Nigerian manufacturing sector. In the light of the foregoing, there cannot be another appropriate time to evaluate the role of the Nigerian manufacturing sector in the economic growth and the development of the country than now.
PROBLEMS CONFRONTING MANUFACTURING IN NIGERIA
The history of industrial development and manufacturing in Nigeria is a classic illustration of how a nation could neglect a vital sector through policy inconsistencies and distractions attributable to the discovery of oil (Adeola, 2005). However, Ogbu (2012) argues that the country’s oil industry is not a major source of employment, and its benefit to the other sectors in the economy is limited since the government has not adequately developed the capacity to pursue the more value-added activities of the petrochemical value chain. As a result, the oil industry does not allow for any agglomeration or technological spillover effects, Ogbu (2012) stresses.

From a modest 4.8% in 1960, manufacturing contribution to GDP increased to 7.2% in 1970 and to 7.4% in 1975. In 1980 it declined to 5.4%, but then surged to a record high of 10.7% in 1985. By 1990, the share of manufacturing in GDP stood at 8.1% but fell to 7.9% in 1992; 6.7% in 1995 and fell further to 6.3% in 1997. As at 2001 the share of manufacturing in GDP dropped to 3.4% from 6.2% in 2000. However, it increased to 4.16% in 2011 which is less than what it was in 1960. Currently, Nigeria’s manufacturing sector’s share in the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) remains minuscule (CBN, 2011). Compare that to the strong manufacturing sectors in other emerging economies, where structural change has already occurred and where millions have been lifted out of poverty as a result: manufacturing contributes 20 percent of GDP in Brazil, 34 percent in China, 30 percent in Malaysia, 35 percent in Thailand and 28 percent in Indonesia (Ogbu, 2012). The more recent experiences of the East and Southeast Asian economic transformations demonstrate that diversification into manufacturing and industrial production facilitated by what Arthur Lewis calls the “intelligent governments” are critical to poverty reduction.

However, Nigeria has no effective industrial policy that promotes manufacturing; at least not in the sense of policy which provides practical solutions to the difficulties encountered by incipient entrepreneurs or emerging manufacturing firms.

SIGNIFICANCE  OF MANUFACTURING INDUSTRY
Industrial activities help in solving the basic problems of unemployment, inflation, budget deficit and general economic disequilibrium. It assists to implement the policies of the government that have been directed towards the improvement of local production. It will reduce the continued pressure on balance of payment in spite of the various policy measures taken so far to address the situation.

SERVICE INDUSTRIES
The service industries (More formally termed: 'tertiary sector of industry' by economists) involve the provision of services to businesses as well as final consumers. Such, therefore, include accounting, tradesmanship (like mechanic or plumber services), computer services, restaurants, tourism, etc. Hence, a service Industry is one where no goods are produced whereas primary industries are those that extract minerals, oil etc. from the ground and secondary industries are those that manufacture products, including builders, but not remodeling contractors.
List of service industries
(1)    Tourism
(2)    Transport
(3)    Banking
(4)    Insurance
(5)    Warehousing
(6)    Advertisement

TREATMENT OF INTERNATIONAL TRADE & COMPARATIVE COST ADVANTAGE

Domestic Trade and International Trade
Domestic or Internal Trade or Home Trade or Home Trade involve the exchange of goods and services among the residents of a country. It includes all trading/selling and buying activities of all types within a particular country. International trade or External trade or foreign trade involves the exchange of goods and services between two or more countries. It is trade among nation, i.e between Nigeria and other countries. People firms, government and agencies exchange goods and services across international boundaries.
International trade can be:-
*Bilateral-trade involving exchange of goods and services among two countries. Each country balances its payments and receipt with each other.
*Multilateral-trade in which a country exchanges goods and services with many other countries.

Similarities Between International Trade And Internal Trade
(1)Both trades involve the use of money as a medium of exchange
(2)Both have to do with some degree of specialization between the trading partners which is the basis of exchange.
(3)Both trades involves the buying and selling of goods and services.
(4)Both trades arise from inequitable distribution of natural endowments and production resources.   
(5)Both trades involve the activities of middle men.

Differences Between International Trade And Internal Trade (1)While International trade takes place across national boundaries, internal trade takes place within the borders of a country.
(2)Internal trade uses local or national currency whereas different currencies are used in foreign trade.
(3)There is no restriction for home trade while foreign trade can be restricted by import/export duties, tariffs, embargoed
(4)International trade is a foreign exchange earner while home trade only generates internal revenue.
(5)Factors of production are freely mobile in home trade, but there are restrictions for such in international trade. e.g labour mobility is subject to immigration laws among countries.(6)Barriers of distance, transport costs are greater in foreign trade than in home trade.
(7)The problems of foreign exchange and balance of payments are peculiar to foreign trade while internal trade has no such problems.
   
Reasons/ Basis For International Trade
International trade arose from the international specialization and division of labour. These have to be for the following reasons:
1. Uneven distribution or endowment in natural resources of nations such as      minerals. For instance, Nigeria has coal and crude oil; Ghana is endowed with bauxite while Canada is enriched with nickel.
2. Differences in climate and soil which gives rise to the cultivation of different crops.
3. Differences in capital stock which determines the quantity and variety of goods and services each country will be able to produce.
4. Differences in labour skills:There are variations in the volume and quality of labour for productive activities.
5. Differences in technology: Countries advanced in technology can produce more industrial goods than others. E.g. Japan is good in electronic goods; Germany is good in Mercedez Benz cars, Switzerland in watches and China in a variety of items.
6. International trade takes place because no country has attained self sufficiency. For instance Nigeria imports cars, radio, watches etc from Japan while Japan gets Nigeria’s petroleum. The desire to satisfy wants each country cannot produce calls for exchange across countries.
7. The need to create a wider market for a nation’s goods and services is another reason for international trade.
8. International trade is also based on the premises that the cost of production of a commodity differs from one country to another. So a country will choose to import a good if it is cheaper to do so than to produce it.
9. Internal trade is also engaged in because of the desire of nations to improve the standard of living of their citizens.
Barriers to International Trade
There are problems besetting trade among nations. These includes
1.Differences in currency
2.Natural barriers of distance, seas, deserts, etc
3.Differences in language
4.Trade restrictions by some nations
5.Long and sometimes difficult processing of documents for foreign trade
6.Hindrance from political ideologies of different countries
7.Differences in units of weights and measures

Advantages or Merits of International Trade
1.It is a source of revenue for nations
2.It leads to increase in total world output of goods and services
3.It provides a wider market for goods
4.It enhances better standard of living in many nations.
5.It promotes interdependence among nations which is a prospect for world peace and international goodwill
6.It provides employment opportunities for exporters and importers
7.It leads to a more efficient allocation of world productive resources
8.It promote specialization, division of labour and efficiency in production
9.It enhances world economic growth   and social progress
10.It leads to increased foreign investments in West African nations
11.It puts in check private monopoly power as importation of goods makes room for competition.

Disadvantages or Demerits of International Trade
Inspite of its numerous advantages, there are some shortcomings of international trade. These are:
1.It may lead to overdependence on other countries
2.It negatively affects the growth of infant industries
3.It negatively impacts on the cultural and moral values of a country and leads to decadence in social norms (e.g. indecent and immoral fashions imports into Nigeria)
4.It can reduce the efforts of a nation towards attaining self-sufficiency.
5.It can generate unemployment as high importation may reduce the level of production of domestic industries.
6.Unrestricted foreign trade may lead to balance of payment deficit i.e when import is higher than import.
7.It makes less developed countries become dumping grounds for all kinds of goods including dangerous and harmful ones such as arms and ammunitions and alcohols.

The Principle Of Comparative Cost Advantages
The law or theory or principle of comparative cost advantage state that a country will be better of, if it specializes in the production of commodities in which it has the greatest comparative cost advantage over others and exchange them for commodities in which it has comparative cost disadvantage.
This law is based on the premises of the law of opportunity cost. A country is said to have comparative advantage over others in the production of a commodity in which it has the lowest opportunity cost than others. The real cost of production in terms of the alternative goods forgone is used in comparison with that of other nations.The principle operates on some basic assumptions that:
1.There are only two trading countries
2.Only two items are produced
3.There is free flow and mobility of factors of production
4.There is no balance of trade between the two countries
5.There is no transport cost
6.Technology and costs are constant
7.Labour is the only factor of production