Showing posts with label Educational Journals. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Educational Journals. Show all posts

Effects Of Parental Educational Background On Students’ Academic Performance In Business Studies In Some Selected Secondary Schools In Akure South Local Government Of Ondo State

The Purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of parental educational background on students’ academic performance, in some selected secondary schools in Akure South Local Government area of Ondo State. The study is a descriptive type. The subjects that constituted the sample for the study were (60) sixty JSS3 students and (3) three Business Studies teachers randomly selected from four secondary schools in Akure South Local Government of Ondo State. The instruments used were four separate questionnaires on for the student s only. The returned questionnaires were sorted out to collect data. The data collected were analyses using simple percentile. The result of the study showed that students from good homes performed well in Business Studies, than the students from bad homes. Based on the result, it was recommended to all agents involved in the training of the students especially on the academic performance to ensure mutual relationship between the parents and the children which has been confirmed to have a significant influence on the performance of the students of Business Studies.

1.1     Background of the study
Among all the subjects that students offer in the Junior Secondary School, Business Studies has won a permanent and an important position. It is one of the compulsory subjects that students cannot but offer both in Junior Secondary School and Senior Secondary School respectively. This may be as a result of the fact that it teaches the basic business skill of the subjects’ evaluation and manipulation of things. In fact, in our society of today, hardly is there any field of such, in business education one could enter into without acquiring the knowledge or business studies. It is so important that the Federal Government of Nigeria places special emphasis on its teaching and learning at the Junior Secondary and Tertiary levels of education in the country.
    In fact, to be eligible for admission into most of our commercial schools today, especially in the junior section before you can choose commercial studies in Senior Secondary School you have to pass Business Studies in Junior Secondary examination.
    As important as this subject is in our present day society, the persistent dividing performances of students in it in both internal and external examinations has been a serious concern to all and sundry; the government, parents, educational administrators and the public at large.
    A lot of factors have been held responsible for the observed performances of students in Business Studies and the other commercial subjects. Some of these, according to Oyedeji (2007), Iroegbu (2004) and Jegede (2002) include sex, family size and environment teachers, school environment, relationship between teachers, parents and students. Availability of instructional and as well as home background
    The findings of the studies cited above indicated that research efforts have not been sufficiently focused on the effect of parental educational background on students academic performance in Business Studies. Knowledge of this is hoped to help teachers and educational authorities know how to deal with students and their parents so that there will be a great improvement in the students’ academic performance in the subject.
    The parent, according to Banjo (2007), is the earliest agency of education where the child is taught his first lesson by his parents, brothers, sisters, playmates, elders and the general condition of the parents.
    Fakuade (2008), was on the opinion on that since students come from various backgrounds and environment, they are motivated differently. Thus, the value which the home or family attaches to school education of a child determines the level of the child’s performances at school.
1.2    Statement of the problem
This study is aimed at finding out the major effects of parental educational background on students’ academic performance. Some of the areas of parental educational effect was that the study will cover are the reason why parents are involved in their children educational background of the students.
    Also, this study will state the major reasons why parental educational background have influenced or effects on their students’ academic performance.
1.3    Purpose of the study
The objectives of this study are to:
  1. Identify why effects of parental educational background on the students’ academic performance in business studies are rampant among secondary school students.
  2. Find out the reasons why students are running away from Business Studies in our schools.
  3. To investigate what can be done to improve the academic performance of the students without the involvement of their parents.
  4. To find out means or ways of eradicating the poor performance of the students in Business Studies in our secondary schools.
  5. To suggest the possible solutions for the improvement of academic performance in Business Studies.
1.4    Research Questions
This study seeks to find answer to the following questions.
  1. Does the effect of parents on the educational background of the students have an impact on the academic performance of Business Studies?
  2. Does the student from good homes of elites perform better in Business Studies than students from home illiterates?
  3. Does the parent contribute any possible results to the students’ academic performance?
  4. Does the government do anything to stop the parental involvement in educational background of their students?
1.5    Significance of the study
In Nigeria, like other countries of the world, most parents are not aware of why their children are performing well in their studies especially Business Studies. As a matter of fact, there is hardly any difference on by the teacher which will eventually give rise to the poor performance in Business Studies in our secondary school of today.
1.6    Limitations and Scope of the Study   
For this study, the researcher is using four secondary schools namely; Aquinas College, Oyemekun Grammar School, St. Louis Grammar School, Fiwasaye Girls Grammar School. The schools are all at Akure township of Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State.
    The study is limited to Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State.
1.7    Definition of Terms
1.    Parents: Father and mother from which younger ones are derived or the person who take care food and shelter.
2.    Teacher: The person who impact knowledge to the students in order to achieve their educational gold.
3.    Student: The person who goes to the school in order to acquire more knowledge than the ones he/she has received from home.
4.    School: The place where knowledge is acquired i.e. primary, secondary and higher institution.

Perceived Impacts Of Exclusive Breastfeeding Among Nursing Mothers Attending Infant Welfare Clinic At Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos State


Breastfeeding is generally considered by health practitioners as the ideal feeding practice for infants. It is the first communication pathway between the mother and her infant. Breast milk provides the essential nutrients for infants less than six months of age and in addition to complementary foods, meets their nutritional needs in early childhood. Even though breastfeeding has been promoted severally, its practice has remained poor in many sub-Saharan African countries including Nigeria.This study was a descriptive one carried out to assess the perceived impacts of exclusive breastfeeding among 100 nursing mothers attending the Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja, Lagos State. Questionnaires were administered to gather information and the data was subsequently collated and analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20. The modal age group of respondents was 26-30 years; 44% of them were Yoruba, 79% were Christians, 70% were graduates and 44% were civil servants. It was discovered during the course of this study that majority of the respondents did not have the correct definition of what breastfeeding is as they believed that exclusive breastfeeding was also feeding the baby with water before the expiration of six months. 93% of them believed that breastfeeding should be started immediately after birth. Factors affecting exclusive breastfeeding included women’s belief that breastfeeding is too rigorous and time consuming, babies do not get satisfied and breast pain. It was discovered that the mothers’ educational status had a direct influence on the practice of breastfeeding, with a ρ-value of 0.013. Benefits of breastfeeding as outlined by the respondents were prevention of illnesses, development of child’s brain, a form of family planning as well as increasing the bond between mother and child.


Appropriate feeding practices have fundamental importance in the survival, growth and development of an infant and children everywhere. Breast feeding is generally accepted as the best form of infant feeding as it contributes 100% of daily nutritional requirement of children 0- 6months, and it continues to provide up to half of more of a child’s nutritional needs during the second half of the first year, and up to one-third during the second year of life (Mohsw 2007).It is promoted worldwide because of its many benefits to infants and mother (Kruger et all 2004).

Breast feeding practice can save as many as 1 .5million infants lives every year as it provides the significant protection against diseases (WHO 2003).The evaluation of the millennium Development Goals (MDG’ S) shows that exclusive breastfeeding for the first six month is the most effective interventions to achieve MDG number four (Bryce et all 2006).

According to WHO/UNICEF (2015) stated that exclusive breastfeeding: the infant has received only breast milk from the mother or expressed breast milk, and no other liquid or solid with the exception of drops or syrups, ORS consisting of vitamins, mineral supplementary, or medicines. Failure of exclusive breastfeeding practice is a risk of factor for malnutrition.

According to WHO (2016) opined that malnutrition refers to deficiencies, excesses or imbalance in person’s intake of energy and or/ nutrients. The term malnutrition covers 2 broad group of conditions. One is “Under nutrition” which includes stunting (Low weight for height) under weight (low weight for age) and micronutrient deficiencies (a lack of important vitamins and minerals). The other one is over nutrition which includes overweight, obesity. Globally, An estimated 41 million children under the age of 5years are stunted and 50million are wasted, submitted by WHO (2016)

Incidence of malnutrition among under 5years old children, In Nigeria, 37percent of children or 6million children are stunted (chronically malnourished or low height for age) more than half of them severely. In addition, 18pecent of children suffers from wasting (acutely malnourished or low weight for height), half of them severely. 29percent of children are underweight (both acutely and chronically malnourished or low weight for age), almost half of them severely. Stunting prevalence remained relatively stable between 2007-2013, whereas wasting has increased significantly from 10percent in 2011 to 18 percent in 2013. Although underweight rate were stable between 2007 and 2011 at around 25percent, the rate increased slightly to 29percent. UNICEF state of the world’s children report (2015).

Malnutrition among under five children is a major public health problem in India. The prevalence of underweight children in India is among the highest in the world, and is nearly double that of sub- Saharan Africa. Each year approximately 2.3million death among 6-16months aged children in developing countries associated with malnutrition, which is about 41 percent the total deaths in this age group. It was reported that underweight among under-five children range from 39percent to 75percent, stunting from 15-4percent to 74percent, and wasting from 10.6 percent to 42.3 percent in different part of the country. (Google Search Engine, medline and others). National family health survey-3 data showed over-weight prevalence as 1.6% while another study revealed 4.5percent.
In south Asia 46 percent of children under 5 are wasted, 44percent of children are stunted and 15percent of children are wasted (progress for children: a report card on nutrition, UNICEF, 2006). In India 48percent of children under 5years of age are stunted and 43percent are underweight, almost 8 million children suffer from severe acute malnutrition.

In the United States of America, one out of every six children is at risk.  The study based on 2005 – 2007 data from United States Census Bureau and the Agriculture Department, shows than estimated 3.5 million children under the age of five are at risk of hunger in the United States.
The United States Department of Agriculture reported that in (2003) only 1 out of 200 United States households with children became so severely food insecure that any of the children went hungry even once during the year.

Health personnel should be involved in the practice of Exclusive Breastfeeding for improved mental growth of children by encouraging the nursing mothers to practice it. This is very important to reduce and prevent malnutrition and other diseases. The focus of this study is on perceived impacts of Exclusive Breastfeeding among nursing mothers in LASUTH Ikeja, Lagos.   

Despite the fact that exclusive breastfeeding is recommended for the first six months of age, and generally known to be the best way to feed an infant, it helps to reduce child mortality/morbidity rate and also promote both psychological and the well-being of the mother and infant (WHO 2008).
In a recent research made, there are some factors that influence and also hinder the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among which are Age, Education, Work, Husband/family support, Level of knowledge, socio-cultural factors and poor lactation. As a result of these, infants are prone to childhood diseases such as diarrhea, malnutrition etc.
The researcher finds it necessary to carry out a research on the perceived impact of exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers attending infant welfare clinic at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja.

  • To determine the knowledge of mothers on exclusive breastfeeding
  • To determine mothers’ attitude and practice towards exclusive breastfeeding
  • To find out socio-economic factors that hinders the practice of exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers.
  • To determine the educational status of mothers on exclusive breastfeeding

Exclusive breastfeeding is of great importance to the baby, mother and society at large. The outcome of this study will address the issues that hinder the practice of exclusive breastfeeding and thus enhance the mothers’ knowledge and attitude towards breastfeeding. The study will help to reduce infant morbidity and mortality rate. The study will help to design health related policy that would guide children feeding.

  • Do nursing mothers have adequate knowledge on exclusive breastfeeding?
  • Does nursing mothers have right attitude in practicing exclusive breastfeeding?
  • What are the factors that hinder exclusive breastfeeding practice among nursing mothers?
  • Do educational statuses of mothers affect exclusive breastfeeding?
  • What are the importance of exclusive breastfeeding?

This study is focused on the perceived impact of exclusive breastfeeding among nursing mothers attending infant welfare clinic at Lagos State University Teaching Hospital, Ikeja. The study will also look into the practices knowledge and attitude of nursing mothers towards exclusive breastfeeding.

PERCEIVED: To become aware or knowledgeable of something.

IMPACTS: The powerful effect that something has on somebody or something.

EXCLUSIVE:   This is the act of practice that involves not easily or readily mixing with or allowing other things.  

BREAST: Is one of the female reproductive organs that is concerned with the production and let-down of milk

FEEDING: This is the process of giving food        

MILK: A white liquid produced by the mammary glands of
female mammals to nourish their young.

EXCLUSIVE BREASTFEEDING: It is a natural feeding of an infant with only human breast milk without adding any milk substitute and water for 6 months of life, that is, the infant only receives breast milk  without any additional food or drink not even water.  
NURSING:This is a process that is involved in giving care to others.

MOTHER:A female parent.

NURSING MOTHERS: This is a person who feeds a baby with milk from her breast or a person who takes care of young ones.

RESPONDENT:    The subject used in research.      

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The Causes And Effects Of Child Abuse: A Case Study Of Some Selected Primary Schools In Akure South Local Governmnet Area Of Ondo State

This study aims at knowing the meaning, causes, effects and solutions to child abuse among pupils of primary schools in Akure South Local Government area of Ondo State. Research questions were used to guide this study toward achieving appropriate results. Instrument used was the pupils and adults opinion questionnaires for Pry 4 to pry 6 and two primary schools in Akure South Local Government area of Ondo State were used as a case study. Results and discussion were arrived at by the data from the pupils and adults opinion questionnaire which was analyzed by the use of percentages. Conditions of the study showed some of the causes of the causes of child abuse and the disastrous implications on the children abused. It also showed that most people are ignorant of child abuse and are not aware of it as being a social problem. Conclusion was made on the findings and also recommendations made for possible solution to the problem of child abuse among pupils of primary schools in Akure South Local Government area of Ondo State, Nigeria.

1.1     Background to the study
    This work has been undertaken to find out the causes, effects and solutions to child abuse among students of primary schools in Akure South Local Government area of Ondo State. It is also meant to bring to light the actual meaning of the term “Child abuse”. The research instrument used for the students and adults.
    Child abuse is both an old and a new phenomenon. It was wide spread in ancient Greek and Roman times and infanticide (killing infants), Europe (Langer 1994).
    However, evidence of child abuse particularly sexual abuse had often being suppressed (Olafson, Lenkan and Sawren 1940s) but only recently has it received careful attention.
    Children have been maltreated by adults throughout history, but it is only occasionally that concern about the issues have been expressed. Child abuse has no meaning to many people especially those living in rural areas. Most families living in the rural areas go in to farming, marketing or other things that are on their ways. Patron (1985), says that children that are abused both boys and girls started at the age of three months to fifteen years of ages. The phenomenon of child abuse vivid illustrated the emotional intensity of parent’s child interaction.
    Implication of child abuse in the child do not only deals with the sores, cuts and bruises on the body but it has psychological implication on the child. The child tends to always fear that he/she could be beaten anytime whether he does something wrong or not. Also, the child end up being an introvert which will show in a cold, unfeeling manner. The child keeps to himself and become very aggressive at the slightest approach by adults or children of his age
    At school, the child will not have any kind of relationship with his teachers and care not. For him/her to answer questions in class, he will not be able to communication effectively. His performance in class will be poor. This often makes the teacher to be annoyed or irritated. If the teacher cannot exercise patience, the child will be picked on by him, and this will eventually give rise to truancy.
    Emotionally, the child will learn to hide his/her felling of joy and love and will grow up to be full of fear and grief. The child becomes a cold and unfeeling human being, a pessimist always thinking of the gloomy side of life. Due to malnutrition and child labor, the child is prone to stunted growth lack of food the body needs to build up with to make him/her strong and healthy. The strenuous jobs will make the child tired always and by not having enough sleep will lead to poor development on the child.
    Socially, the child become a social outcast, isolating himself from the society and condemning all those around her involving in social setting.
    Child abuse does not only have implication on the child but also on the “abuser” themselves and the society at large. When the child abusers are not happy with their situations, they result to heavy drinking, usage of drugs, stealing, cheating and other social vices which does not only make them liable to sentences in prison but can jeopardize their whole lifestyle. For instance, a man after getting drunk take to driving crash his car. It could lead to his death or severe injuries and the wife at home is nickname “the wife of a drunkard”. Again, such individuals become a threat to the society when they no more take their work seriously and either by not concentrating or failing to turn up at all.
    Families in which both parents are staying together also take out their frustration on the children. Frustration may arise from work, unemployment, poor housing, financial difficulty, mental or physical illness, dependency on welfare agencies and social isolation.
    Moreover, if the society at large is demanding too much probably the social, economic and political order is deteriorating, this fear of break down the society invariably focus on the family and those who know the family and those who have a responsibility for ensuring its assault, then the child suffers most.
    Other causes of child abuse range from pre-marital conception, unemployment and unwanted or resented pregnancies and youthful parenthood illegitimate births and marriage followed by extra-marital conception. Child abuse also arises when there are difficulties in pre and neonatal period including low birth weight pre-maturity. Neonatal separations and illness of mother or child during the first year of birth. All these factors lead to poor mother-child relationship which could actually give way to child abuse. A discuss of child abuse and neglect would not be completed without a precise statement as to what is referred to as ‘the child’. It would severe our purpose best to regard all who came in with the definition of “Juvenile” in the children and young person law (cap 19) laws of Nigeria, 1963 as those within the contemplation of child abuse and neglect and defined the child to mean any person who has attained the age of fourteen (14) years but is less than seventeen (17) years. Throughout history and across culture, the attitude towards children and definition of what constitutes abuse vary.
    In traditional setting, children were seen as the property of their parents and abuse was ignored and if not even tolerated or at times encouraged. In some cases, children were castrated or physically maltreated under the direction of a religious leader. In America, some religious tenets believed that children were born with original sin and must therefore be punished and directed by their parents in order to obtained salvation.
    Present days, agencies designed to specifically address the concern of physically abuse children trace their origin to the classic case of a foster child named Mary Ellen in 1874. She had been beaten daily by her step-mother and there appeared to be no legal means to protect her. At times, there was no law against cruelty to children although, such did exist with regard to animals which referred her to court as an animal who is getting maltreated. It was from this case that the society developed the children’s division of the American Human Association.

This study is aimed at finding out the major causes of child abuse among Nigeria children. Some of the areas of child abuse that the study will cover will include sexual abuse, child labour, early marriage, physical and physiological maltreatment, malnutrition and separation from parents. Although most of the families tends to be ignorant of child abuse and seen it as a way of upbringing for the child and protecting the child from bad behavior.
The objectives of the study are to:
  1. Identify the forms that child abuse can take.
  2. Find out child abuser.
  3. Investigate the causes of child abuse.
  4. Find out means or ways of eradicating child abuse in our society.

    This study seeks to find answers to the following questions:
  1. What are the causes of child abuse?
  2. What are the implications of child abuse?
  3. Are abused children abuses due to particular characteristics in them?
  4. Do children eventually become truants due to child abuse?
    In Nigeria like some other countries of the world, most families are not aware of the term abuse. Even the children that are being abused do not know when they are being abused or when they are not.
    For this study, the researcher is using two primary schools and adults opinion. L.A Primary School, Akure and Arisayin Primary School Akure. The study is limited to Akure South Local Government Area of Ondo State.

  1. CHILD ABUSE: According to United Nation International Children Emergency Fund (UNICEF 1986) refers to child abuse as the mistreatment of children by their parents or guardians.
  2. SOCIAL PROBLEM: Wilson (2002), emphasizes that social problem is a condition of devotion from some social norm which is cherished.
  3. CHILD MARRIAGE: Sharp (2003), points out that the uniting informal marriage of children especially girls usually under fifteen years of age.
  4. CHILD LABOUR: Havris (1999), sees child labour as a work done by children which is dangerous to their health and physical development and interferes with their social and emotional way of life.
  5. CHILD ABUSERS: Basher (2001), emphasizes that parents, guardians, teachers, welfare agencies who maltreat children fall into this category.
  6. SEXUAL ABUSE: Jay Mac (2003), emphasizes that when the child especially girl is being used for sexual stimulation who are not fully developed.
  7. ABUSIVE VIOLENCE: Lovell (1998), sees abuse violence when a child is beaten up or threatened with a knife or gun or harmful objects are thrown at the child by a parent.
  8. NORMAL VIOLENCE: Nigel Patron (19850), sees normal violence when a child is spanked or slapped  by a parent

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Prospects Of Teaching And Learning Business Education In Junior Secondary Schools, A Case Of Study Of Some Selected Secondary Schools In Akure South Of Local Government Ondo State

It is difficult to pin point the exact beginning of Business Education in Nigeria. In the teaching and learning of Business Education, the students should be equipped with such competencies that would help him meet the needs of the business world. This paper takes a cursory look at the teaching and learning of Business Education (Secretarial Option) in Junior Secondary Schools in Ondo State and its relevance to the present day business needs. This paper makes some recommendations on how students of Business Education can acquire the entrepreneurial skills to make them relevant in the business world.

Background to the study
      Business Education like other subjects is first and foremost an instrument of business. It consists of an arbitrary system or pattern of resources in business activities of the student by means of which man imparts to others and shares with other, his thoughts, emotions and desires that is why Hocket as quoted by Patter (1960) says Business Education is the most important valuable single possession of human race.
        The importance of Business Education as a prominent way of transaction in this country (Nigeria) especially in the Yoruba land cannot be overemphasized. One could rightly describe it as the pilot on which the international and integration lives of people in Nigeria revolved. It came to be inherited in the western activities of the early Europeans – missionaries merchants and later colonizers of the trade routes. The prospects of teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary School is to expose the students to business activities in their environment.
        Business Education is also one of the subjects in the school curriculum. Its contribution is of no small measure to the realization of the national objectives of the trade activities.                             It is the only medium of instruction generally used in schools where it is applicable. It also helps in the aesthetic sensibility of the students in understanding and expending their experiences. Inspite of this, teachers and students have negative attitudes towards the teaching and learning of Business Education. As a result of this, the performances of the students in Business Education have not been encouraging for the past years.
         These have drawn public outcry on why this should be so. Some students cannot even express or write effectively the Business terminologies. It can therefore be inferred that students may be directly related to low extent of teaching and learning of Business Education in schools.
         The importance of Business Education as a subject in the school curriculum, the problems associated with its teaching and learning and the attitude of teachers and students cannot but draw the attention of scholars to the investigation of specific problems and the extent to which it is taught. This has become necessary in view of the urgency of improving students avoid the teaching and learning of Business Education in our Junior Secondary Schools. As a result of this, specifically the study will look into the influence of the students ability in Business Education, lack of facilities, the government policy, the teachers characteristics towards the teaching of Business Education.

1.2    Significance of the study
     This study will reveal some of the factors that are affecting the prospects of teaching and learning of Business Education in Junior Secondary School in Ondo State. It will also enable the students, government, the school administrator, the parents and the teachers make goal use of factors and blend them where necessary to provide for better learning and teaching of Business Education.

1.3    Research questions
     It is not expected that all the selected primary school teachers and students would be interested in Business Education. It is the assumptions of this study that if the specific problems confronting the teaching and learning of Business Education are exposed, it may improve both teachers and students attitude and interest. This study sets out to cover the following specific questions.
  1. Is Business Education taught by qualified and experienced teachers ?
  2. To what extents is Business Education taught in selected school in Akure town of Ondo State?
  3. Does the students’ parents have any exact influence on the learning of Business Education?
  4. What is the attitude of students to the teaching of Business Education?
  5. Does the government attitude towards Business Education affect the teachers and students in teaching and learning of Business Education?

   Statement of the problems          
        There have been public outcries on why there are always the obstacles for students. There are also different views on why students often perform poorly in Business Education during external examinations. This study sets out to give the cause of the problems affecting the prospects of teaching and learning of Business Education. It is the assumption of this study that statements of the problem include the following.
Teachers: How they affect the teaching of Business Education in the selected school. Availability of teaching aids and textbooks and how these affect the teaching and learning of Business Education.
Limitation of the study
        This study will be restricted to four secondary schools in Akure South Local Government of Ondo State. The reason for choosing only four secondary schools is because of the following reasons. The distance between the various primary schools in the township, as a result of this, more secondary school cannot be covered.
      Also, this study will involves boys and girls selected primary school specifically J.S.S. 1 – 3 during the process of reasoned teachers of Business Education in the four selected schools will also be invited in giving the necessary information in collaboration with the school principals.The study will look into all the possible methods of teaching and learning direct or indirect.

  Definition of terms    
i.    Business studies: Business studies can be seen as five in one a pre-vocational subject that equips students with basic management skills, necessary to perform excellently well as either a career officer or a successful businessman.
ii.   Office practice: This concerned with an office and the performance of all clerical activities includes receiving, recording, sorting, storing and retrieving information.
iii.  Commerce: This is an aspect of business studies that is concerned with trade and aid to trade. Trade is the buying and selling and distributing of goods and services. While aids to trade are the factors that make trades possible on a large scale.
iv.    Book keeping: It is the systematic recording of all cash and credit transaction into the relevant books of account. The books of account are the books of original entry and the ledger.
v.    Shorthand: This is the use of signs and symbols to represent spoken sounds. Shorthand is phonetic in nature as words are written as they are pronounced. Because of its irrelevance in the present day economic world; It has been faced out of the present curriculum.

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