Showing posts with label Educational. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Educational. Show all posts

The Overview of Computer Networking

Networking engineering is a complicated task, which involves software, firmware, chip level engineering,

Networking engineering is a complicated task, which involves software, firmware, chip level engineering, hardware, and electric pulses. To ease network engineering, the whole networking concept is divided into multiple layers. Each layer is involved in some particular task and is independent of all other layers. But as a whole, almost all networking tasks depend on all of these layers. Layers share data between them and they depend on each other only to take input and send output.

Layered Tasks
In layered architecture of Network Model, one whole network process is divided into small tasks. Each small task is then assigned to a particular layer which works dedicatedly to process the task only. Every layer does only specific work.

In layered communication system, one layer of a host deals with the task done by or to be done by its peer layer at the same level on the remote host. The task is either initiated by layer at the lowest level or at the top most level. If the task is initiated by the-top most layer, it is passed on to the layer below it for further processing. The lower layer does the same thing, it processes the task and passes on to lower layer. If the task is initiated by lower most layer, then the reverse path is taken.

Layered Tasks
Every layer clubs together all procedures, protocols, and methods which it requires to execute its piece of task. All layers identify their counterparts by means of encapsulation header and tail.

OSI Model
Open System Interconnect is an open standard for all communication systems. OSI model is established by International Standard Organization (ISO). This model has seven layers:

OSI Model
Application Layer
This layer is responsible for providing interface to the application user. This layer encompasses protocols which directly interact with the user.

Presentation Layer
This layer defines how data in the native format of remote host should be presented in the native format of host.

Session Layer
This layer maintains sessions between remote hosts. For example, once user/password authentication is done, the remote host maintains this session for a while and does not ask for authentication again in that time span.

Transport Layer
This layer is responsible for end-to-end delivery between hosts.

Network Layer
This layer is responsible for address assignment and uniquely addressing hosts in a network.

Data Link Layer
This layer is responsible for reading and writing data from and onto the line. Link errors are detected at this layer.

Physical Layer
This layer defines the hardware, cabling wiring, power output, pulse rate etc.

Internet Model
Internet uses TCP/IP protocol suite, also known as Internet suite. This defines Internet Model which contains four layered architecture. OSI Model is general communication model but Internet Model is what the internet uses for all its communication.The internet is independent of its underlying network architecture so is its Model. This model has the following layers:

Internet Model
Application Layer
This layer defines the protocol which enables user to interact with the network. For example, FTP, HTTP etc.

Transport Layer
This layer defines how data should flow between hosts. Major protocol at this layer is Transmission Control Protocol (TCP). This layer ensures data delivered between hosts is in-order and is responsible for end-to-end delivery.

Internet Layer
Internet Protocol (IP) works on this layer. This layer facilitates host addressing and recognition. This layer defines routing.

Link Layer
This layer provides mechanism of sending and receiving actual data. Unlike its OSI Model counterpart, this layer is independent of underlying network architecture and hardware.

Sample of Examination Question on English Studies for Primary Three

Toys for baby


COMPREHENSION
  Read the comprehension passage and answer the questions below

Lukman goes to school on foot every day. Before he gets to school, he crosses a busy expressway. Lukman is a very careful boy. He uses the zebra crossing to cross because he does not want to be knocked down by a car, bus or motorcycle
At the zebra crossing sign on the road, he waits, looks right, looks left and looks right again. When the traffic has obeyed the traffic lights, he quickly walks across the road. Where there is no zebra crossing, he uses pedestrian bridges if there is one or he asks older people to help him cross safely

QUESTIONS
How does Lukman goes to school? (a) By ferrari (b) By sandal (c) By foot (d) By traffic

What does he do before he gets to school? (a) he eats rice and stew (b) he carries his younger ones (c)he sleeps a lot (d) he crosses a busy express road

How does he cross the expressway? (a) he uses Microscope (b) he uses the zebra crossing (c) he jumps in a car (d) he sings

Why is he careful to cross the expressway? (a) he does not want to be knocked down (b) he has his own bus (c) he has his own car (d) he is a boy

What other ways does he use in crossing the road? (a) He uses the road (b) he uses the pedestrian bridge (c) he uses his hand (d) he climbs zebra to cross

Pick the correct word that has each of these sounds
/e/  (a) road (b) think (c) toilet (d) watering

/Ͻi/ (a) pole (b) oil (c) combing (d) pot

/a/ (a) correct (b) fat her (c) shoulder (d) show.

Pick out the correct adjectives in these sentences.

Everyone wished James a happy birthday. (a) Everyone (b) wished (c) happy (d) a

The teacher is holding a thick book. (a) The teacher (b) is holding (c) thick (d) book 

John always takes the largest share (a) takes (b) is taking (c) largest (d) underline

Pick from option A- D the word that is similar in meaning to the underlined words.

The little girl is wearing a beautiful dress (a) Sweet (b) attractive (c) long (d) Short.

It is a nice day. (a) Pleasant (b) duty (c) Crispy (d) Party
Choose the right word from options A- D to complete each of the following sentences

14. The practice of keeping oneself or the things around you free of dirt ____________ (a) Cleanliness (b) truthfulness (c) Carelessness (d) cruelty.

Good behavior towards someone is _________ (a) watchfulness (b) dizziness (c) free (d) soup.

Treatment of someone in a fair way or giving someone a deserved punishment (a) Judiciary (b) Justice (c) Cleanliness (d) Obedient.

Working with a lot of effect is _____________ (a) Working (b) hardworking (c) running (d) walking

___________ is when someone always tells the truth and does not cheat or steal (a) Cunning (b) humility (c) telling (d) drill.

An ___________ person does what they are told to do or what a law rule e.t.c. says they must do (a) Cruel (b) Cruelty (c) Obedient (d) Harsh

Choose the right answer from options A – D.

Who is the mother of Obinna? (a) Ugo (b) Clamma (c) Ethoma (d) Amadi

How many churches came to visit Amadi? (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 1 (d) 5
__________ is the Beloved Child (a) Clara (b) Traditional (c) Ikota (d) Obinna.

Why did Obinna travel to Ado? (a) To greet his aunt (b) For an examination (c) To see his friends (d) To buy fish.

What is the full meaning of YCSA (a) Young Cast Schedule Advantage (b) Yelling Conservative Student Admin (c) Young

Christian Servant Association (d) Young Church Serving Adversary.

Who wrote the book titled ‘The beloved Child (a) Joel Oruche (b) Joel Onuche (c) Joel Onuchar (d) Oruche Jonah

Can I take Olu with me? (a) Yes you can (b) Yes you didn’t (c) No you wasn’t (d)  Yes you were.

Ada`s father has lived in Makurdi ____________ five years (a) four (b) fort (c) through (d) for.

Choose the first word which will come first which arranged alphabetically
A B C D
Beg           band             big          bunch
Tend           time             two          try
Orange           Oven             Okra          Open.

THEORY
Write a composition on My School (10 Marks)
Re- arrange each of these words to form another word
Example Pot – top
Owns    =  S _________ w__________ ______-___
Nats      =  n _________  s ___________
Lamps   =  p a _____________  ___________ s
Reap     =   p  a __________  _________s
Pots       =   __________________.  (20 Marks)


UNDERSTANDING YOUR PUPILS TEMPERAMENT IN ORDER TO MEET UP TO 21ST CENTURY TEACHING STANDARD


You can’t teach the 21st century child with 19th century skill (embrace change). Do not dwell on a child’s weakness, identify his or her assets and work with that. It is very wrong to throw books in your class. If learners can’t find peace at home, they should be able to find comfort in school. Some of them are going through more than they can handle at home psychologically. Teachers shouldn’t confine ourselves to the walls of our classroom and school (it could be psychologically stressful). Let loose and take in some cool fresh air occasionally. You are your look, when your stress and depression shows on your way of dressing, it will sell you short. People can never treat you better than how you look consistently. If you have issues with how parents relate with you in school, you might need to work on your look and skill level, but your look first. Don’t look like where you are now, look like where you are going. Frustrated look will always attract disrespect and treatments like a slave, always wear your smile, that’s the best perfume, care for the pupils and they will give you joy.
There are 4 Types of Intelligence
Intelligent Quotient (IQ)
Emotional Quotient (EQ)
Social Quotient (SQ)
Adversity Quotient (AQ)
Helps one to “know book” solve mathematics, memorize things and recall subject matters
Makes someone maintain peace with others, keep to time, be responsible, be honest, respect boundaries, be humble, genuine and considerate
People to be able to build network of friends and maintain it over a long period of time
Makes one go through rough patches in life and comes out without losing ones centers. This determines who give up in face of troubles, who will consider suicide ad abandon family etc.
Most schools capitalize more on improving IQ level while SQ & EQ are played down. Your EQ represent your character your SQ represent your fame. Give into habits that will improve these 4Qs most especially your EQ, AQ & SQ. let’s not concentrate only on IQ.
Every child is a genius, school grades may not determine this. Albert Einstein says ‘Everyone is a genius, but if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live it’s whole life believing that it is stupid’. Academic performance is never and will never be an accurate determinant of a genius. All classrooms are best described as where a group of people with different passion, talents and destiny are gathered. Pupils are like butterflies in the wind, some can fly higher than others but each flies the best it can. All pupils are unique and special due to their personality. There are different personalities.
Personality or Temperaments
Temperaments are our permanent psychological nature determining how we think, behave, interact and work. With better understanding of our individual peculiarities we can take advantage of the temperament of our pupil
Temperament is classified into 4 by Hippocrates

TEMPERAMENT
PERSONALITY
ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE
ACADEMIC HELP
EXTROVERT
SANGUINE
Easy going, flexible, dynamic person, task oriented, playful, talkative, lively, imaginative, doesn’t like critical thinking, enthusiastic, active and social
. Their love for arts, drama, crafts and sometimes literature is superb and they are highly inquisitive. They usually disrupt  the class.
Visual-based learning techniques, works well for them. They learn better with this rather than the traditional classroom based teaching methods e.g. YouTube, some phone applications that give tips on a particular subject or prepare some handy diagrams to flow charts and pin them around to make the info sink. Always start revision with them earlier with the right materials to aid their studies. One on one time with teacher can prove absolutely priceless. They prefer this because he or she gains the full attention of the teacher.
CHOLERIC
They are short-tempered, fast, adventurous, determined, outspoken, strong-willed, competitive, confident in the company of others and irritable
Choleric child loves being ahead of his/her peers in class work or always want to be the first to answer questions. They have a certain confidence in their own ability.
They can excel by using any method of teaching for them. They are unlikely to worry about their work; they always need a little push to get on their studies In the first place, they love competition but hate to lose, so test-based, competitive learning might work for them. Solo learning on them but with regular checkup and some refreshers (drink and snacks) at interval to make learning interesting, test based teaching, giving them some learning devices with series of test to be completed say weekly to check their progress.
INTROVERT
MELANCHOLY
They are analytical, wise, orderly, persistent, respectful, easy to spot, they usually find it easy to learn personally or with group and quiet
There personality is a plus for them in their studies. They are attentive and usually adaptable to any given situation. They are not sociable so group work can help fill the gap. They perform well in public speaking, debating or even politics.  They usually find themselves in journalism
They do well with Visual-learning. They appreciate a change of pace when it comes to traditional classroom learning. They are more attentive than other children in other groups when using images, pictures or maps to organize information and communicate. Verbal learning wok well for them. They usually do well in English book and text. They prefer written and spoken word style of learning.
PHLEGMATIC
Relaxed, thoughtful, controlled, adaptable, attentive, diplomatic and peaceful
They prefer one on one discussion to adapt or facts at home. They usually respond to classroom based learning. They are happy learning by themselves. They are quite introverted
Help them develop their social skills when you have the opportunity. They enjoy outside of their usual daytime classes. Group learning could be helpful/they could be reluctant at first and have a gradual thrive towards the group based learning. Always start with their best subjects. They need a positive, friendly and encouraging environment to learn fast. They can get motivated from their peers with their quite competitive nature. The after school club helps them the most. One-on-one teachings the best for them. They use extreme focus here to shine. Motivating a phlegmatic child can be tough but it certainly doesn’t have to be a lost because they like new and inventive ways to learn important facts

Extroverts usually encourage teamwork and collaboration. They allow exploring things and taking challenges, develop leadership skills, flexibility and enthusiasm.
Introverts: don’t require much publicity, allow them develop new skills privately, let them observe situation before making decisions, don’t demand strict deadlines and constant push, expect little distraction.
                               

CHANGING THE ROLES OF TEACHERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY


The main objectives of education are personal development, social development and  national development. The role of teacher for future society has changed and it’s a most useful for every person those who are engage in Teaching-Learning process. Teacher becomes human resources for the nation, society and industry. Globalization is affecting the culture, economy and information. Teacher should not only facilitate learning but should also promote citizenship training and active integration into society, develop curiosity, critical thinking and creativity, initiative and self-determination. Teacher wide roles are to support school and pupil success. Children have different strategies for learning and achieving their goals. Pupil disruptions will occur frequently in classes that are poorly organised and managed where pupils are not  provided with appropriate and interesting instructional tasks. The pupil behaviours are influenced by the quality of the teacher and pupils relationship. Relations for the modernisation of teacher education is that good education requires good teacher. Most capable are appropriate people be recruited into the teaching profession, provided with a high quality pre-service programme of teacher education.
Modern education system is pupils centred in that context, teacher role be changed. The education system of the 21st century has changed radically with the integration of the technology in every sector. At the same time, the pupils are more matured than the previous time. The twenty-first-century education depends on thinking skills, interpersonal skills, information media, technological skills as well as life skills. Especially, the education of the present time emphasis on life and career skills. Now there has no value for rote learning. In general, it needs to meet the industry need. To clarify, the teaching will be effective when a pupil can use the lesson outside of the classroom.
For changing the globalizing world, the role of the teachers is essential to improve the sustainable education. At the same time, inspiring and guiding the pupils in increasing employability skills with the digital tools is the prerequisite for a teacher. Thus a teacher in the twenty-first century will be a digital teacher. Teachers are not the facilitator for learning of the pupils only, and now they are responsible for training the pupils for increasing employability skills, expanding the mind, growing digital citizenships, critical thinking, and creativity as well as sustainable learning. Thus, the winning of the pupils is the win of the teachers. With the passes of time and integration of technology in every sector, the teacher’s role has changed a lot. They need to enrich some skills to develop their pupils. Otherwise, the pupils will not get the lesson, and it will increase the  rate of educated unemployed in the digital era.
2.0 THE CHANGED ROLES OF TEACHERS IN THE 21ST CENTURY
  • Learner-centered classroom and personalized instruction
Pupils have different personalities, goals, and needs, and offering personalized instruction is not just possible but desirable. When pupils are allowed to make their own choices, they own their learning, increase intrinsic motivation, and put in more effort—an ideal recipe for better learning outcomes. As today’s pupils have access to authentic resources on the web, experts anywhere in the world, and peers learning the same subject somewhere else, teaching with textbooks is very 20th-century. Today’s pupils should develop their own driving questions, conduct their research, contact experts, and create final projects to share, all using devices already in their hands. All they need from their teacher is guidance. Today’s pupils have the latest and greatest tools, yet the usage in many cases barely goes beyond communicating with family and friends via chat, text, or calls. Even though pupils are now viewed as digital natives, many are far from producing any digital content. They own expensive devices with capabilities to produce blogs, infographics, books, how-to videos, and tutorials, just to name a few,
  • A Planner for 21st Century Careers
This is the most competitive world, and there has the diverse option to choose the next career for a pupil. In this case, a teacher needs to become a big planner to support them according to their psychology. The future of a pupil will depend on 4C’s (Critical thinking, Communication, Collaboration, and Creativity). It is the duty of a teacher to introduce  the mentioned terms very clearly. The pupils will need to try several multidisciplinary jobs. So the teachers will define where they will give more importance and which skills are just for adding value or keeping as optional. It will ensure better learning environments and the pupils will be engaged with the lesson. Don’t limit a child to your own learning, for he was born in another time.
  • A digital Instructor for Different Ways of Learning
Effective teachers don’t limit the learning resources for the pupils. Correspondingly, they are the best instructor for the pupils. In contrast, they will create the learning materials entertaining. In the digital age, you can find a lot of resources who are teaching the course efficiently. The instructor knows how to make the meaningful learning opportunities for all pupils. Providing practical examples in the classroom or collaborating in a class with another teacher can also help them to learn perfectly. To emphasize, they know mixing the knowledge with an expert collaborator can make the pupil motivated.
  • A Technology Lover for Learning
Now, it is so tough to attract the pupils without the use of technology. If you don’t teach the right use of technology and how to find the internet resources, they will get the evil resources. Important to realize, a teacher needs to learn how to read the psychology and what the pupils want. With attention to, if you can’t maintain the online community with the pupils, you will not be able to inform the pupils about the world. Indeed, there has no way of the teachers to deal with the pupils without learning the technology and internet world. As a result, when you want to build the nation, you have to develop yourself first.. Then again, they keep knowledge about which jobs will be available in the next decade. In addition, they learn the newest technology to help the pupils. To put it differently, they know how to combine the technology, pedagogy, and content which will ensure Real-World Problem Solving and cooperative learning.
SUGGESTIONS & RECOMMENDATIONS FOR 21ST CENTURY SCHOOLS
  • Upper primary classes (4-6) can make use of tablet phones programmed with educational  curriculum, subject notes, common entrance past examinations questions, skill acquisitions and other educational tools to pace up with demanding 21st century teaching development.  
  • The school can introduce e-lesson note ( Electronic lesson note ) format to prepare note of lessons. This is part of 21st latest teaching development in which some schools have started usin since the beginning of this 21st century.
  • The school can introduce electronic examinations instead of the usual paper examinations mode. It can be in this format pre-primary to primary 3 can continue usual format due to age and handling, while primary 4-6 can partake in e-examinations.
  • Incorporation of technical and scientific clubs (i.e, computer club) , school boys scout, entrepreneurial clubs (i.e, tailoring) , Taekwondo and karate club in which the intrested pupils can join but on monetary basis to pay the experts trainners.
  • English studies should be broken into various aspects ( i.e Grammar, Comprehension, Literature) and each aspect being handled by specialist. Introduction of Dictation as subject especially for the lower basics.
  • School management can create school's Facebook page/groups, twitter page , or WhatsApp group to partake in the 21st century socialization.
CONCLUSION
Who will be the illiterate of the 21st century? The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. So, as a nation builder, you may say your pupils are busy with the computer or mobile games or browsing the internet. Here you need to point out the resources on the web. It will increase the interest of the pupils. By all means, follow all the above rules if you want to become a self-award winner teacher in the 21st century. To summarize it all, a teacher needs to follow the quote from Henry Ford, "Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young. The greatest thing in life is to keep your mind young."


TYPES OF LEARNERS/ PUPILS IN THE CLASSROOM

Scientists and psychologists have developed a number of different models to understand the different ways that people learn best. Each learning type responds best to a different method of teaching. The consequences of these learning styles reach far beyond the classroom. If you want to educate a large group of people, no matter what the setting, you need to know how to engage each of the eight learning styles.
Pupils in classroom

1.The Logical or Mathematical Learner
The logical or mathematical learner must classify or categorize things. They also tend to understand relationships or patterns, numbers and equations, better than others. These are obviously engineers, scientists, mathematicians, and other technical professions.
2.The Interpersonal Learner
The interpersonal learner is someone who learns by relating to others. Often, these people share stories, work best in teams, and compare their ideas to the ideas of others. In a sense, others help them think of new ideas of their own. They are often naturally good leaders as well as team players. You often see these people in various fields of psychology or social sciences.
3.The Intrapersonal Learner
The intrapersonal, as opposed to interpersonal, learner is someone who works and learns best when they are alone. They set individual goals that are challenging, but not impossible. They are also motivated by internal forces, rather than external ones. They are often introverted individuals, but not always. These people often enter creative fields, become entrepreneurs, and sometimes small business owners. But, they are usually in fields or industries that allow them to work without direct supervision.
4.The Linguistic Learner
The linguistic learner is one who learns best through linguistic skills including reading, writing, listening, or speaking. Sometimes, it’s a combination of these methods. So, for example, if a linguistic learner wanted to tackle a new skill, their best method of learning would be to read about it, then listen to an audio recording and take notes on it. Finally, concretizing it would require speaking about it and, possibly, writing about it extensively. Not surprisingly, some of the best teachers and professors are linguistic learners. It’s in the nature of the profession.
5.The Naturalist
The naturalist learns by working with, and experiencing, nature. If this sounds a lot like a scientist, it’s because that’s how scientists learn. The naturalist loves experiences, loves observing the world around them, and captures the best information or knowledge through experimentation.
6.The Musical or Rhythmic Learner
The musical or rhythmic learner is one who learns using melody or rhythm. This would be like a musician learning how to play by listening to a piece of music or a drummer who hears beats in his head and on the street from arbitrary sources before putting it together in the studio. But it can also be a person who learns best while humming, whistling, toe-tapping, tapping their pencil on the desk, wiggling, or listening to music in the background. For this person, music isn’t a distraction but instead actually helps the learning process. Some people also think better with background noise, so you may often notice that some people think best when they hum, whistle, bounce a ball off the wall, or make some other noise or move (pace) while thinking.
7.The Kinesthetic Learner
The Kinesthetic learner is a person that learns best by actually doing something.These people are also scientific in nature and must interact with objects in order to learn about them (or learn about them in the best way possible). Some of the most common kinesthetic-based jobs are those in the arts, manufacturing or creative fields like physical therapy, dancing, acting, farming, carpentry, surgery, and jewelry-making. None of these careers could be done without “hands-on experience.” Many of these jobs, with rare exception, are also trade professions that require an apprenticeship or shadowing.
8.The Visual or Spatial Learner
A visual or spatial learner is a person who learns best if there are visual aids around to guide the learning process. For example, someone who can learn best from diagrams, pictures, graphs would be a visual or spatial learner. These people tend to be technically-oriented and enter engineering fields. An example of this type of learner would be a person who becomes a computer engineer or programmer. But, the best pupils are those that are visual or spatial learners.

History And Science

Scientific knowledge, according to W.H. Walsh, in his An Introduction to the Philosophy of History is that branch of knowledge which:
i.    is methodically arrived at and systematically related.
ii.    consists of, or at least includes, a body of general truths.
iii.    enables us to make successful predictions and so to control the future course of events, in some measure at least.
iv.    is objective in the sense that it is such as every unprejudiced observer ought to accept if the evidence were put before him, whatever his personal predilections or private circumstances.
It is against the above background that the claim of history tp scientific status will be examined.
There is no doubt that both in the physical sciences (physics, chemistry, biology) and in history; knowledge is methodically arrived at and systematically related.  When the historian sets to work, he seeks to produce a significant record (or knowledge) of the human past. He conducts an enquiry into the past of man in society with present evidence which may be in form of oral tradition, archival documents and archeological artifacts.  The physical scientists conducts an inquiry into the natural phenomena through direct observation and laboratory experimentation. Both the natural scientist and the historian, like the scientist, does not just gather facts. He scrutinizes them by appealing to available evidence.  His methods, like those of the scientists, are not exclusive to him or any group but rather open to all who have the proper orientation for use, review and further investigation.
But difference exists and they should be noted.  Nature, which is the object of natural scientists study is amenable to repeated observation.  But replication is not possible in history. The historian cannot play back historical events; he can only reconstruct them. The implication here is that whereas the scientist gives a first hand account of the phenomenon he studies, the historian gives, at best, a second hand account of the events he inquires. Again, the object of the scientist’s study exists independently of him.  He can therefore investigate empirically into the object of his inquiry. But historical facts have no objective existence outside the historian. The historian is a participant-observer. Hence, the moral and emotional aloofness of the natural scientist from the object of his study does not hold for the historian. The quality of the data upon which the two work is different. Whereas, the historian’s data can be said to be working with “raw” materials, the historian’s data (his facts) have undergone some processing.
Scientific knowledge issues in general truths.  If a Zoologist sets out to find out the habits or life history of a species of animals, he chooses a member of that species.  Whatever he finds out to be true of his object, he generalizes about others in the group. But the life history of one man, or even of many individual men, will not tell anyone the life history of other men.  What is more, one cannot make a full scientific analysis of the life history of any one man. Human beings are to complex, too spiritual and various for any scientific analysis; and the life history of millions of men cannot be inferred from the history of a single man.  It is true that physical sciences no longer dwell on exactitudes as before the discovery of new phenomena is constantly bringing about the recasting of theories. But the truth is that their probabilities are still far nearer certainty than in history. E. H. Carr has argued that “the historian constantly uses generalization to test his evidence” and that the historian “is not really interested in the unique.” In explication of his argument, he contends that whenever the historian speaks of a “war” or of a “revolution,” he is using generalization; implying that there are certain features which characterize these terms.  But there generalizations which are not contestable, are in no way akin to the formulation of general laws. Granted that scientific laws are no qualified as working hypotheses expressions of tendencies and probabilities and not exactitudes, it is clear that in the physical sciences there are laws which differ in scale from any generalization which the historian might feel competent to make.
Carr argues at length on the fact that the historian is capable predicting the future.  But even then, he admits that he is not suggesting “that the inferences of the social scientist or of the historian can match those of the physical scientist in precision, or that their inferiority in this respect is due merely to the greater backwardness of the social sciences. The underlined phrases clearly establish that there are predictions: one in the physical science and the other in history and social sciences.  The fact remains that the historian’s concern is with past (the fact that he reconstructs that past in the light of present evidence notwithstanding). Though his expertise permits him to make some intelligent predictions about the present and the future, but that is not really his business.  “Historians do not prophesy” is a popular cliché. What, in fact, the historian does, in the normal courses of his enquiry, has been termed “retrodiction”. He makes an inference about something for which he does not, as yet have full and sufficient evidence. He tries to suggest what will be seen to have happened once the full (or rather new and logical) evidence is available.  Put differently, the historian uses new evidence not to foretell what the future will be but to recast what the past might have been.
The fourth characteristic, that is, of objectivity marks a fundamental difference between scientific and historical knowledge.  The scientist can be absolute in his findings, but the historian can never be completely objective. Right from the moment he begins to collect his evidence, the historian display his subjectivity. Since he writes from a particular point of view and for a particular audience, he discriminates between facts that are available and are related to his study.  Carr says “the point of view of the historian enters irrevocably into every observation which he make, “history is shot through with relativity.” The historian’s conclusion is therefore coloured in the sense in which scientists is not. Thus the historian has put his own “predilections” or “private circumstances” into his account and as such could not claim (objective) status for his discipline.
By way of illustration, Frederick Forsyth in his The Making of a Nation: The Biafra Story, writes a pro-Biafran account of the Nigerian Civil War.  His facts about and his analysis of the war reflect his bias.  General Olusegun Obasanjo in My Command writes from the angle of a participant-observer. His biases, personal and group (as a federalist) are also reflected. Alexander Madiebo’s The Biafran Revolution and the Nigerian Civil War also reflects his personal and group (as a Biafran) biases. But a scientist who wishes to inquire into the incidence of kwashiorkor during the Civil War has no personal or group biases to show.  He will be concerned with questions relating to the causes, the course and the consequences in a purely objective manner. It is clear from the foregoing that although history is a science capable of yielding knowledge, it is not” a science, no less, no more”