Showing posts with label Educational. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Educational. Show all posts



Candidates can also check their results on the Council’s results website: WAEC LINK

1. Enter your 10-digit WAEC Examination Number. (This is your 7-Digit centre number followed by your 3-digit candidate number eg. 4123456789)

2. Enter the 4 digits of your Examination Year eg. 2002

3. Select the Type of Examination

4. Enter the Card Serial Number found on the reverse side of your Scratch card.

5. Enter the Personal Identification Number (PIN) on your Scratch card.

6. Click Submit and wait for the results window to come up

Over 1.6 million candidates sat for the May/June 2019 WASSCE in Nigeria. The West African Examinations Council (WAEC), on Friday, confirmed the released of this year’s May/June WASSCE.

The council, while confirming the release, urged candidates not indebted to the council to access and check their results online via the result checker PIN on their smart identity cards used for the examination.  


You can’t teach the 21st century child with 19th century skill (embrace change). Do not dwell on a child’s weakness, identify his or her assets and work with that. It is very wrong to throw books in your class. If learners can’t find peace at home, they should be able to find comfort in school. Some of them are going through more than they can handle at home psychologically. Teachers shouldn’t confine ourselves to the walls of our classroom and school (it could be psychologically stressful). Let loose and take in some cool fresh air occasionally. You are your look, when your stress and depression shows on your way of dressing, it will sell you short. People can never treat you better than how you look consistently. If you have issues with how parents relate with you in school, you might need to work on your look and skill level, but your look first. Don’t look like where you are now, look like where you are going. Frustrated look will always attract disrespect and treatments like a slave, always wear your smile, that’s the best perfume, care for the pupils and they will give you joy.
There are 4 Types of Intelligence
Intelligent Quotient (IQ)
Emotional Quotient (EQ)
Social Quotient (SQ)
Adversity Quotient (AQ)
Helps one to “know book” solve mathematics, memorize things and recall subject matters
Makes someone maintain peace with others, keep to time, be responsible, be honest, respect boundaries, be humble, genuine and considerate
People to be able to build network of friends and maintain it over a long period of time
Makes one go through rough patches in life and comes out without losing ones centers. This determines who give up in face of troubles, who will consider suicide ad abandon family etc.
Most schools capitalize more on improving IQ level while SQ & EQ are played down. Your EQ represent your character your SQ represent your fame. Give into habits that will improve these 4Qs most especially your EQ, AQ & SQ. let’s not concentrate only on IQ.
Every child is a genius, school grades may not determine this. Albert Einstein says ‘Everyone is a genius, but if you judge a fish by its ability to climb a tree, it will live it’s whole life believing that it is stupid’. Academic performance is never and will never be an accurate determinant of a genius. All classrooms are best described as where a group of people with different passion, talents and destiny are gathered. Pupils are like butterflies in the wind, some can fly higher than others but each flies the best it can. All pupils are unique and special due to their personality. There are different personalities.
Personality or Temperaments
Temperaments are our permanent psychological nature determining how we think, behave, interact and work. With better understanding of our individual peculiarities we can take advantage of the temperament of our pupil
Temperament is classified into 4 by Hippocrates

Easy going, flexible, dynamic person, task oriented, playful, talkative, lively, imaginative, doesn’t like critical thinking, enthusiastic, active and social
. Their love for arts, drama, crafts and sometimes literature is superb and they are highly inquisitive. They usually disrupt  the class.
Visual-based learning techniques, works well for them. They learn better with this rather than the traditional classroom based teaching methods e.g. YouTube, some phone applications that give tips on a particular subject or prepare some handy diagrams to flow charts and pin them around to make the info sink. Always start revision with them earlier with the right materials to aid their studies. One on one time with teacher can prove absolutely priceless. They prefer this because he or she gains the full attention of the teacher.
They are short-tempered, fast, adventurous, determined, outspoken, strong-willed, competitive, confident in the company of others and irritable
Choleric child loves being ahead of his/her peers in class work or always want to be the first to answer questions. They have a certain confidence in their own ability.
They can excel by using any method of teaching for them. They are unlikely to worry about their work; they always need a little push to get on their studies In the first place, they love competition but hate to lose, so test-based, competitive learning might work for them. Solo learning on them but with regular checkup and some refreshers (drink and snacks) at interval to make learning interesting, test based teaching, giving them some learning devices with series of test to be completed say weekly to check their progress.
They are analytical, wise, orderly, persistent, respectful, easy to spot, they usually find it easy to learn personally or with group and quiet
There personality is a plus for them in their studies. They are attentive and usually adaptable to any given situation. They are not sociable so group work can help fill the gap. They perform well in public speaking, debating or even politics.  They usually find themselves in journalism
They do well with Visual-learning. They appreciate a change of pace when it comes to traditional classroom learning. They are more attentive than other children in other groups when using images, pictures or maps to organize information and communicate. Verbal learning wok well for them. They usually do well in English book and text. They prefer written and spoken word style of learning.
Relaxed, thoughtful, controlled, adaptable, attentive, diplomatic and peaceful
They prefer one on one discussion to adapt or facts at home. They usually respond to classroom based learning. They are happy learning by themselves. They are quite introverted
Help them develop their social skills when you have the opportunity. They enjoy outside of their usual daytime classes. Group learning could be helpful/they could be reluctant at first and have a gradual thrive towards the group based learning. Always start with their best subjects. They need a positive, friendly and encouraging environment to learn fast. They can get motivated from their peers with their quite competitive nature. The after school club helps them the most. One-on-one teachings the best for them. They use extreme focus here to shine. Motivating a phlegmatic child can be tough but it certainly doesn’t have to be a lost because they like new and inventive ways to learn important facts

Extroverts usually encourage teamwork and collaboration. They allow exploring things and taking challenges, develop leadership skills, flexibility and enthusiasm.
Introverts: don’t require much publicity, allow them develop new skills privately, let them observe situation before making decisions, don’t demand strict deadlines and constant push, expect little distraction.


The main objectives of education are personal development, social development and  national development. The role of teacher for future society has changed and it’s a most useful for every person those who are engage in Teaching-Learning process. Teacher becomes human resources for the nation, society and industry. Globalization is affecting the culture, economy and information. Teacher should not only facilitate learning but should also promote citizenship training and active integration into society, develop curiosity, critical thinking and creativity, initiative and self-determination. Teacher wide roles are to support school and pupil success. Children have different strategies for learning and achieving their goals. Pupil disruptions will occur frequently in classes that are poorly organised and managed where pupils are not  provided with appropriate and interesting instructional tasks. The pupil behaviours are influenced by the quality of the teacher and pupils relationship. Relations for the modernisation of teacher education is that good education requires good teacher. Most capable are appropriate people be recruited into the teaching profession, provided with a high quality pre-service programme of teacher education.
Modern education system is pupils centred in that context, teacher role be changed. The education system of the 21st century has changed radically with the integration of the technology in every sector. At the same time, the pupils are more matured than the previous time. The twenty-first-century education depends on thinking skills, interpersonal skills, information media, technological skills as well as life skills. Especially, the education of the present time emphasis on life and career skills. Now there has no value for rote learning. In general, it needs to meet the industry need. To clarify, the teaching will be effective when a pupil can use the lesson outside of the classroom.
For changing the globalizing world, the role of the teachers is essential to improve the sustainable education. At the same time, inspiring and guiding the pupils in increasing employability skills with the digital tools is the prerequisite for a teacher. Thus a teacher in the twenty-first century will be a digital teacher. Teachers are not the facilitator for learning of the pupils only, and now they are responsible for training the pupils for increasing employability skills, expanding the mind, growing digital citizenships, critical thinking, and creativity as well as sustainable learning. Thus, the winning of the pupils is the win of the teachers. With the passes of time and integration of technology in every sector, the teacher’s role has changed a lot. They need to enrich some skills to develop their pupils. Otherwise, the pupils will not get the lesson, and it will increase the  rate of educated unemployed in the digital era.
  • Learner-centered classroom and personalized instruction
Pupils have different personalities, goals, and needs, and offering personalized instruction is not just possible but desirable. When pupils are allowed to make their own choices, they own their learning, increase intrinsic motivation, and put in more effort—an ideal recipe for better learning outcomes. As today’s pupils have access to authentic resources on the web, experts anywhere in the world, and peers learning the same subject somewhere else, teaching with textbooks is very 20th-century. Today’s pupils should develop their own driving questions, conduct their research, contact experts, and create final projects to share, all using devices already in their hands. All they need from their teacher is guidance. Today’s pupils have the latest and greatest tools, yet the usage in many cases barely goes beyond communicating with family and friends via chat, text, or calls. Even though pupils are now viewed as digital natives, many are far from producing any digital content. They own expensive devices with capabilities to produce blogs, infographics, books, how-to videos, and tutorials, just to name a few,
  • A Planner for 21st Century Careers
This is the most competitive world, and there has the diverse option to choose the next career for a pupil. In this case, a teacher needs to become a big planner to support them according to their psychology. The future of a pupil will depend on 4C’s (Critical thinking, Communication, Collaboration, and Creativity). It is the duty of a teacher to introduce  the mentioned terms very clearly. The pupils will need to try several multidisciplinary jobs. So the teachers will define where they will give more importance and which skills are just for adding value or keeping as optional. It will ensure better learning environments and the pupils will be engaged with the lesson. Don’t limit a child to your own learning, for he was born in another time.
  • A digital Instructor for Different Ways of Learning
Effective teachers don’t limit the learning resources for the pupils. Correspondingly, they are the best instructor for the pupils. In contrast, they will create the learning materials entertaining. In the digital age, you can find a lot of resources who are teaching the course efficiently. The instructor knows how to make the meaningful learning opportunities for all pupils. Providing practical examples in the classroom or collaborating in a class with another teacher can also help them to learn perfectly. To emphasize, they know mixing the knowledge with an expert collaborator can make the pupil motivated.
  • A Technology Lover for Learning
Now, it is so tough to attract the pupils without the use of technology. If you don’t teach the right use of technology and how to find the internet resources, they will get the evil resources. Important to realize, a teacher needs to learn how to read the psychology and what the pupils want. With attention to, if you can’t maintain the online community with the pupils, you will not be able to inform the pupils about the world. Indeed, there has no way of the teachers to deal with the pupils without learning the technology and internet world. As a result, when you want to build the nation, you have to develop yourself first.. Then again, they keep knowledge about which jobs will be available in the next decade. In addition, they learn the newest technology to help the pupils. To put it differently, they know how to combine the technology, pedagogy, and content which will ensure Real-World Problem Solving and cooperative learning.
  • Upper primary classes (4-6) can make use of tablet phones programmed with educational  curriculum, subject notes, common entrance past examinations questions, skill acquisitions and other educational tools to pace up with demanding 21st century teaching development.  
  • The school can introduce e-lesson note ( Electronic lesson note ) format to prepare note of lessons. This is part of 21st latest teaching development in which some schools have started usin since the beginning of this 21st century.
  • The school can introduce electronic examinations instead of the usual paper examinations mode. It can be in this format pre-primary to primary 3 can continue usual format due to age and handling, while primary 4-6 can partake in e-examinations.
  • Incorporation of technical and scientific clubs (i.e, computer club) , school boys scout, entrepreneurial clubs (i.e, tailoring) , Taekwondo and karate club in which the intrested pupils can join but on monetary basis to pay the experts trainners.
  • English studies should be broken into various aspects ( i.e Grammar, Comprehension, Literature) and each aspect being handled by specialist. Introduction of Dictation as subject especially for the lower basics.
  • School management can create school's Facebook page/groups, twitter page , or WhatsApp group to partake in the 21st century socialization.
Who will be the illiterate of the 21st century? The illiterate of the 21st century will not be those who cannot read and write, but those who cannot learn, unlearn, and relearn. So, as a nation builder, you may say your pupils are busy with the computer or mobile games or browsing the internet. Here you need to point out the resources on the web. It will increase the interest of the pupils. By all means, follow all the above rules if you want to become a self-award winner teacher in the 21st century. To summarize it all, a teacher needs to follow the quote from Henry Ford, "Anyone who stops learning is old, whether at twenty or eighty. Anyone who keeps learning stays young. The greatest thing in life is to keep your mind young."


Scientists and psychologists have developed a number of different models to understand the different ways that people learn best. Each learning type responds best to a different method of teaching. The consequences of these learning styles reach far beyond the classroom. If you want to educate a large group of people, no matter what the setting, you need to know how to engage each of the eight learning styles.
Pupils in classroom

1.The Logical or Mathematical Learner
The logical or mathematical learner must classify or categorize things. They also tend to understand relationships or patterns, numbers and equations, better than others. These are obviously engineers, scientists, mathematicians, and other technical professions.
2.The Interpersonal Learner
The interpersonal learner is someone who learns by relating to others. Often, these people share stories, work best in teams, and compare their ideas to the ideas of others. In a sense, others help them think of new ideas of their own. They are often naturally good leaders as well as team players. You often see these people in various fields of psychology or social sciences.
3.The Intrapersonal Learner
The intrapersonal, as opposed to interpersonal, learner is someone who works and learns best when they are alone. They set individual goals that are challenging, but not impossible. They are also motivated by internal forces, rather than external ones. They are often introverted individuals, but not always. These people often enter creative fields, become entrepreneurs, and sometimes small business owners. But, they are usually in fields or industries that allow them to work without direct supervision.
4.The Linguistic Learner
The linguistic learner is one who learns best through linguistic skills including reading, writing, listening, or speaking. Sometimes, it’s a combination of these methods. So, for example, if a linguistic learner wanted to tackle a new skill, their best method of learning would be to read about it, then listen to an audio recording and take notes on it. Finally, concretizing it would require speaking about it and, possibly, writing about it extensively. Not surprisingly, some of the best teachers and professors are linguistic learners. It’s in the nature of the profession.
5.The Naturalist
The naturalist learns by working with, and experiencing, nature. If this sounds a lot like a scientist, it’s because that’s how scientists learn. The naturalist loves experiences, loves observing the world around them, and captures the best information or knowledge through experimentation.
6.The Musical or Rhythmic Learner
The musical or rhythmic learner is one who learns using melody or rhythm. This would be like a musician learning how to play by listening to a piece of music or a drummer who hears beats in his head and on the street from arbitrary sources before putting it together in the studio. But it can also be a person who learns best while humming, whistling, toe-tapping, tapping their pencil on the desk, wiggling, or listening to music in the background. For this person, music isn’t a distraction but instead actually helps the learning process. Some people also think better with background noise, so you may often notice that some people think best when they hum, whistle, bounce a ball off the wall, or make some other noise or move (pace) while thinking.
7.The Kinesthetic Learner
The Kinesthetic learner is a person that learns best by actually doing something.These people are also scientific in nature and must interact with objects in order to learn about them (or learn about them in the best way possible). Some of the most common kinesthetic-based jobs are those in the arts, manufacturing or creative fields like physical therapy, dancing, acting, farming, carpentry, surgery, and jewelry-making. None of these careers could be done without “hands-on experience.” Many of these jobs, with rare exception, are also trade professions that require an apprenticeship or shadowing.
8.The Visual or Spatial Learner
A visual or spatial learner is a person who learns best if there are visual aids around to guide the learning process. For example, someone who can learn best from diagrams, pictures, graphs would be a visual or spatial learner. These people tend to be technically-oriented and enter engineering fields. An example of this type of learner would be a person who becomes a computer engineer or programmer. But, the best pupils are those that are visual or spatial learners.

History And Science

Scientific knowledge, according to W.H. Walsh, in his An Introduction to the Philosophy of History is that branch of knowledge which:
i.    is methodically arrived at and systematically related.
ii.    consists of, or at least includes, a body of general truths.
iii.    enables us to make successful predictions and so to control the future course of events, in some measure at least.
iv.    is objective in the sense that it is such as every unprejudiced observer ought to accept if the evidence were put before him, whatever his personal predilections or private circumstances.
It is against the above background that the claim of history tp scientific status will be examined.
There is no doubt that both in the physical sciences (physics, chemistry, biology) and in history; knowledge is methodically arrived at and systematically related.  When the historian sets to work, he seeks to produce a significant record (or knowledge) of the human past. He conducts an enquiry into the past of man in society with present evidence which may be in form of oral tradition, archival documents and archeological artifacts.  The physical scientists conducts an inquiry into the natural phenomena through direct observation and laboratory experimentation. Both the natural scientist and the historian, like the scientist, does not just gather facts. He scrutinizes them by appealing to available evidence.  His methods, like those of the scientists, are not exclusive to him or any group but rather open to all who have the proper orientation for use, review and further investigation.
But difference exists and they should be noted.  Nature, which is the object of natural scientists study is amenable to repeated observation.  But replication is not possible in history. The historian cannot play back historical events; he can only reconstruct them. The implication here is that whereas the scientist gives a first hand account of the phenomenon he studies, the historian gives, at best, a second hand account of the events he inquires. Again, the object of the scientist’s study exists independently of him.  He can therefore investigate empirically into the object of his inquiry. But historical facts have no objective existence outside the historian. The historian is a participant-observer. Hence, the moral and emotional aloofness of the natural scientist from the object of his study does not hold for the historian. The quality of the data upon which the two work is different. Whereas, the historian’s data can be said to be working with “raw” materials, the historian’s data (his facts) have undergone some processing.
Scientific knowledge issues in general truths.  If a Zoologist sets out to find out the habits or life history of a species of animals, he chooses a member of that species.  Whatever he finds out to be true of his object, he generalizes about others in the group. But the life history of one man, or even of many individual men, will not tell anyone the life history of other men.  What is more, one cannot make a full scientific analysis of the life history of any one man. Human beings are to complex, too spiritual and various for any scientific analysis; and the life history of millions of men cannot be inferred from the history of a single man.  It is true that physical sciences no longer dwell on exactitudes as before the discovery of new phenomena is constantly bringing about the recasting of theories. But the truth is that their probabilities are still far nearer certainty than in history. E. H. Carr has argued that “the historian constantly uses generalization to test his evidence” and that the historian “is not really interested in the unique.” In explication of his argument, he contends that whenever the historian speaks of a “war” or of a “revolution,” he is using generalization; implying that there are certain features which characterize these terms.  But there generalizations which are not contestable, are in no way akin to the formulation of general laws. Granted that scientific laws are no qualified as working hypotheses expressions of tendencies and probabilities and not exactitudes, it is clear that in the physical sciences there are laws which differ in scale from any generalization which the historian might feel competent to make.
Carr argues at length on the fact that the historian is capable predicting the future.  But even then, he admits that he is not suggesting “that the inferences of the social scientist or of the historian can match those of the physical scientist in precision, or that their inferiority in this respect is due merely to the greater backwardness of the social sciences. The underlined phrases clearly establish that there are predictions: one in the physical science and the other in history and social sciences.  The fact remains that the historian’s concern is with past (the fact that he reconstructs that past in the light of present evidence notwithstanding). Though his expertise permits him to make some intelligent predictions about the present and the future, but that is not really his business.  “Historians do not prophesy” is a popular cliché. What, in fact, the historian does, in the normal courses of his enquiry, has been termed “retrodiction”. He makes an inference about something for which he does not, as yet have full and sufficient evidence. He tries to suggest what will be seen to have happened once the full (or rather new and logical) evidence is available.  Put differently, the historian uses new evidence not to foretell what the future will be but to recast what the past might have been.
The fourth characteristic, that is, of objectivity marks a fundamental difference between scientific and historical knowledge.  The scientist can be absolute in his findings, but the historian can never be completely objective. Right from the moment he begins to collect his evidence, the historian display his subjectivity. Since he writes from a particular point of view and for a particular audience, he discriminates between facts that are available and are related to his study.  Carr says “the point of view of the historian enters irrevocably into every observation which he make, “history is shot through with relativity.” The historian’s conclusion is therefore coloured in the sense in which scientists is not. Thus the historian has put his own “predilections” or “private circumstances” into his account and as such could not claim (objective) status for his discipline.
By way of illustration, Frederick Forsyth in his The Making of a Nation: The Biafra Story, writes a pro-Biafran account of the Nigerian Civil War.  His facts about and his analysis of the war reflect his bias.  General Olusegun Obasanjo in My Command writes from the angle of a participant-observer. His biases, personal and group (as a federalist) are also reflected. Alexander Madiebo’s The Biafran Revolution and the Nigerian Civil War also reflects his personal and group (as a Biafran) biases. But a scientist who wishes to inquire into the incidence of kwashiorkor during the Civil War has no personal or group biases to show.  He will be concerned with questions relating to the causes, the course and the consequences in a purely objective manner. It is clear from the foregoing that although history is a science capable of yielding knowledge, it is not” a science, no less, no more”

From Helenistic Age To Roman Historiography

Hellenistic civilization refers to the synthesis of Greaco – Roman civilization. The historiography of the period has also been referred to as Greco – Roman historiography. One of the most outstanding figures that this era produced was Polybius. None of the writers of the period carried  on the scientific tradition started by Herodotus and Thucydides. Indeed, after Polybius there was a gradual decline in the quality of historical writing. They developed a method of scholarship which Collingwood described as "scissors – and – paste method." While only the introductory chapter of Polybius works was constructed on the “scissors and paste method;” it was the whole body in the Livy's work. He just assembled the traditions and records of early Roman Historian and welded them together into a single continuous narrative history of Rome. Although, a philosophical historian, he accepted the Roman tradition of origin at its face value and repeated them in good faith.
The Hellenistic age did not pursue the vigorous historical scholarship laid down by Herodotus and Thucydides. In the feverish pursuit of writing a world history, the historians of the age developed a new method of historical research which, the so-called “scissors – and – paste.” This method simply involved the compilation of data from several disparate sources and authorities after which they would then be weaved into a single story. This method was far inferior to the Herodotian and Socratic method of the 5th century. The most distinguished historian of the age was Polybius and with him Western historiography reached its peak. Like any historian Polybius addressed himself to particular subject matters, e.g.. Conquest of the World by Rome. His field of research was probably determined by his vocation – He was a Republican Senator in Rome. Besides his preoccupation  with politics, Polybius broadened the Romans’ conception of history. History, to the Romans, meant continuity and in this regard minutest details about every – day life was meticulously recorded. Although Polybius was ambitious (to have written a comprehensive history of Rome), he realized that he was handicapped by his sources and age. Thus, he began the story of Rome some 150 years before the time of his writing. And despite the fact that he relied on those authorities which he adjudged trustworthy, he still remained critical of them. In other words, he did not allow his sympathetic feelings towards the Romans to becloud his sense of judgment. It was with this object in mind that Polybius refused to concern himself with the problems of origins of the Roman peoples.
Another worthy contribution of Polybius to historiography is that he himself to a more definite and concise conception of history. He used the word historie not in its original and quite general sense as meaning any kind of enquiry but in its modern sense of history. He was a proponent of this science to universal study for its own sake. He was the first person to conceive such an idea. History for Polybius is worth studying not because it is scientifically true but because it is a school and training for political life. He, however, did not think that the study of history would enable men to avoid the mistakes of their predecessors. According to Polybius, the only lesson we learn from the tragedies of historical actors is not to avoid such tragedies in our own lives but to have the fortitude to bear them when fortune bring them. With this position, it stands clear that the idea of fortune or determinism was an important ingredient of Polybius's conception of history. Nonetheless, Polybius was an accomplished historian in the context of the time and with him the Hellenistic tradition of historical thought passed into the hands of Rome.
The Roman Historiography
Although the Romans produced many remarkable writings they fell short of the standard of historical scholarship recommended by Herodotus. Indeed, after Polybius, there was a gradual decline in the quality of historical writing. The only positive challenge was offered by Livy who ambitiously attempted to write A Complete History of Rome from the Earliest Times.  The snag, however, was that while only the introductory chapter of Polybius work was constructed on the "scissors and paste" method, it was the whole body, in the case of Livy's work. Livy just assembled the tradition and records of early Roman history and welded them into a simple continuous narrative history of Rome. It was the first time anything of the sort had been done. Livy's history of Rome appealed to the Romans for two reasons: he had been able to produce a national history, a world history.
Although, a philosophical historian, he was less philosophical than Polybius, (but far more philosophical than any later Roman historian). In the words of R. G. Collingwood, the scientific claim of his work was very low. First, he made no claim to original research or original method. In fact, he simply accepted the Roman tradition of origin as he found it. Second, he overemphasized the moral purpose of history. He only probed into the past with a view to providing an example of early days when the Roman society was simple and uncorrupted and showing how the foundations of Roman greatness were laid in this primitive society. In the, event, he exaggerated the virtues of ancient Rome and romanticized its past. Despite these flaws in his conception of history Livy was able to recognize that history is essentially humanistic.
Livy has often been charged with credulity in his attitude towards his authorities but this is rather a harsh assessment, it should be noted that Livy was confronted with a mass of legend and all he could within the context of the scholarship of the period was to decide which ones were trustworthy and which ones were not. Three options were open to him: to repeat them, accepting their substantial accuracy; to reject them; or repeat them with the caution that he was not sure of their truth. Thus, at the beginning of his exercise Livy admitted clearly that the traditions referring to events before the foundations of Rome were fables rather than traditions and could neither be affirmed nor criticized. At the end, however, he accepted most of the Roman traditions and repeated them in good faith. With these obvious shortcomings and with Livy as the outstanding Roman historian, it is therefore not surprising that R. G. Collingwood remarked that:
The Roman age was, not an age of vigorous and progressive thought. It did singularly little to advance knowledge on any of the paths that the Greeks had opened up.
Indeed, after Livy there was no genuine historical scholarship. The succeeding writers became more content with compilation, plagiarizing the works of their predecessors and producing not historical accounts but propaganda. In fact, as far as methodology was concerned Tacitus represented a great decline. Apart from the fact that his works were a patchwork of quotations, his interpretative framework was very low. In his historical literature, he was obsessed with the teachings of morals. In fact, the major purpose of history, according to him was to record virtues and castigates evil deeds. Indeed, he saw nothing wrong in distorting history to achieve this objective. Besides, his works were characterized by a high degree of partisanship and low degree of objectivity. As Collingwood had revealed, Tacitus was flagrantly biased in favour of the senatorial opposition, had great contempt for peaceful administration and admired conquest and military glory.
Plutarch, another Roman historian of the period, did not fare better. Plutarch's main intention in his work Twenty Two Parallel Lines was to show the virtues in the character of these heroes. The consequent effect was that the quality of historical writing became affected as historical reality became secondary to persuasion. Moreover, all Roman writers were carried away by the use of flamboyant language, literary imagery and stylistic, brilliance. At best they were mere rhetoricians rather than serious thinkers.
Characteristics of Roman Historiography
One major feature of Roman historiography was substantialism – the idea that only what is unchanging is knowable. Although this anti – historical view had been deep – seated in Greek thought, Herodotus had, in the 5th century, proved that events are important in themselves. This stream of historical thought which flowed so freely in Herodotus became slightly dimmed under Thucydides when he contended that events are important chiefly for the light they throw on eternal and substantial entities of which they are mere accidents. If the stream was dimmed under Thucydides, it became frozen by Livy's time. The Roman writers drew a distinction between act and agent and fully subscribed to the view that history cannot explain how an agent came into being or underwent any change of nature.  This explains why their writings were parochial in outlook. For instance, Livy's Complete History of Rome from the Beginning could not look at the growth and development of Roman institutions but with a Rome already fully formed and unaffected by the course of history. In the same way Tacitus believed that human nature and institutions could never change. According to him “a good man cannot become bad" and power "does not alter a man's character;” it only shows what kind of man he already was. In effect, Roman writers did not bother themselves with how anything came into existence; all the agencies that appeared on the stage of history were assumed ready made before history began. Briefly, the position of the historian during the Roman age was worse than Herodotus' era as he was regarded incapable of studying those events which constituted knowledge.
Another feature of Roman historiography was its humanism. The era came into agreement that history is a narrative of human history, the history of man's deeds, man's purpose, man's successes and failures. No doubt, it admits a divine agency but the function of this agency is strictly limited. Indeed, most Roman writers secularized history making it entirely the activities of human beings. They contended that whatever happened in history, happened as a direct result of human will. Livy, in particular, dismissed as nonsense the attempt to offer divine explanation for any event. As a balance sheet, while it is true that the Roman era was barren of historical thought, it nonetheless extended the frontiers of historical knowledge into the distant past.
It is to the Romans that we owe the conception of history as both ecumenical and national. For examples Livy's work – History of Rome from the Beginning - was a pioneering attempt. In a similar manner, Plutarch's treatment of some of his heroes also took him back to the origins of the Greeks. And, although the Romans were imperfect in handling their source – materials, they still demonstrated a high sense of duty in their meticulous search for evidence and careful preservation of historical documents. These admissions notwithstanding, the Roman era marked a decline in Western historiography.