Bleeding: Definition, Types, And Treatment

Bleeding also known as HAEMORRHAGE is the escape of blood from the damaged blood vessels. Bleeding often occur after wound has been sustained. Depending on whether the wound sustained is open or closed, bleeding can occur either internally or externally.
Bleeding Picture

Depending on the blood vessel that is damaged, bleeding can either be arterial, venous or capillary.
ARTERIAL BLEEDING: This is a type of bleeding that occurs as a result of damage to the arteries, such bleeding is characterized by a bright red coloured blood which jets out from the spot of injuries. This blood is oxygen-rich i.e. it contains oxygen.
VENOUS BLEEDING: This type of bleeding results from damage to the veins; it is characterized by a dark red coloured blood which flows out from the spot of injury. This blood contains little or no oxygen.
CAPILLARY BLEEDING: This results from damaged blood capillaries in the body; it is characterized by a purple red coloured blood which oozes from the spot of injury.

EXTERNAL BLEEDING: This is a kind of bleeding that occur as a result of sustaining an open wound, which brings the visibility of blood on the outside of the body.
INTERNAL BLEEDING: This is a kind of bleeding that is not visible on the outside of the skin, but can be suspected when the casualty vomits blood or when blood or body fluid containing some blood comes out from the natural body orifices such as the ear, nose, mouth, virginal, anus etc. This category of bleeding occurs as a result of internal damage of some organs of the body such as the kidney, heart, lungs, intestine, etc.

PRIMARY BLEEDING: Bleeding is said to be in the primary stage when it occurs immediately after sustaining an injury.
SECONDARY BLEEDING: At this stage, bleeding occurs sometime after sustaining an injury.
REACTIONARY BLEEDING: At this stage, bleeding occurs as a result of mismanagement of old wounds; secondary injury or when the heart suddenly regenerates its force.  

The under listed are common cause of bleeding.
  • Rupture of blood vessels
  • Fracture
  • Wounds
  • Severe burns
  • Disease of the blood vessel
  • Disease of the blood itself.
Signs and Symptoms
  • Pale face
  • Cold and clammy skin
  • Thirstiness
  • Shock
  • Restlessness
  • Dizziness
  • Pain
  • Rapid pulse
  • Sweating
  • Loss of consciousness
  • Fast and weak pulse.
  • Bleeding from orifices
  • Shallow breathing
  • Fainting
  1. Place the casualty in a comfortable position
  2. Reassure the casualty
  3. Arrest bleeding, bandage and elevate the affected part if possible
  4. Guide against or treat for shock
  5. If casualty complains of thirst, give sips of water
  6. If necessary dispose the casualty.