Practice Of First Aid

First aid is the immediate first skilled (acceptable) assistance given to a casualty at the scene of occurrence (if the environment is danger-free) before the arrival of the medical personnel or before the casualty is taken to the nearest hospital or his/her home. It is sometimes referred to as EMERGENCY AID. It must be done at the scene of occurrence if the environment is danger-free.   
AIMS OF FIRST AID
The following are the reasons while first aid is given to casualties in occurrence of accidents or illnesses.
  1. To save life.
  2. To prevent a condition from becoming worse
  3. To promote quick recovery.

GOLDEN RULES OF FIRST AID
  1. Do the first thing first; this includes assessing the situation for any immediate danger, quickly and methodically without panicking, giving priority to the most urgent situation or condition.
  2. Remove the casualty from the cause of injury or the cause of injury from the casualty.
  3. Reassure the casualty and get help as soon as possible.
  4. Improvise all necessary materials.
  5. Do not allow crowd around casualty and also do not move casualty unnecessarily.
  6. Loosen all tightening materials around the casualty’s neck, waist, wrist, etc.
  7. Resuscitate the casualty, if necessary and carry out general treatment of unconsciousness.
  8. Arrest bleeding, cover all wounds, burns or scalds and immobilize all fractures.
  9. Guide against or treat for shock.
  10. Dispose or transport the casualty properly.

SCOPE OF FIRST AID

A    DIAGNOSIS: This pre-supposes investigation on the incidence through observation mainly based on signs, symptoms and history.
  • Signs: These are what that can be seen on or around the victim or casualty.
  • Symptoms: These simply mean what or how the casualty or victim feels and what he or she says or tells you if conscious.
  • History: The story of how the incidence happened which could be told by the casualty if conscious, otherwise, the by-standers.

B    TREATMENT: This is the application of proper and adequate first aid in order of priority. The following modes of treatment are used where there are mass casualties. They are:  
  • Breathing
  • Bleeding
  • Burns
  • Broken bones
  • Other condition.
C    DISPOSAL: Transporting the casualty from the place of injury or place of treatment to a comfortable shelter, his or her home or hospital.

WHO IS A FIRST AIDER?
A first aider is someone skilled in first aid; that is, one who has been trained in first aid under a recognized body or organization, tested and certified pass to give first aid. A first aider is highly trained and up to date in knowledge and skill of first aid.

SOME QUALITIES OF A GOOD FIRST AIDER
  • Observance
  • Sympathetic
  • Resourceful
  • Accommodating
  • Obedience
  • Honesty
  • Impartiality
  • Tactfulness
  • Tolerance
  • Neatness
  • Cheerfulness
  • Empathetic
  • Smartness

FIRST AID KIT AND MATERIALS
A first aid kit is simply a container which contains basic first aid materials. First aid kits are usually mobile and can be found at home, offices, work places or sport centre.

BASIC MATERIALS OF A SIMPLE FIRST AID KIT AND THEIR USES

BANDAGES: These are used for holding dressings and splints in place. There are various kinds of bandages which are:
  • Triangular bandage
  • Crepe bandage
  • Gauze bandage
  • Roller bandage

 
  
First Aid Tools

WATER BOTTLE: It is used for holding clean water.
COTTON WOOL: It is used for cleaning wounds and sometimes used for padding.
GAUZE PAD: It is used for dressing wounds.
HYDROGEN PERIOXIDE: It is used to wash wounds.
ADHESIVE TAPE: It is used to for fixing bandages and dressing in place.
PINS/CLIPS: They are used for holding dressing and bandages.
DISINFECTANT: It is used for cleaning wounds.
NERVE AND BONE: This is used to relief muscular and rheumatic pains through massaging. Embrocation, Deep Heat spray, Transversin, mentholated balm or Rub can also be used for muscular and rheumatic pains.
PLASTER/ELASTOPLAST: It is used for dressing wounds.
STERILIZER: This is used for sterilizing cutting object such as scissors.
SCISSORS/FORECEPS: These are used for cutting, holding and placing dressing materials.
TEXTURE BENZOIN COMPOUND (T.B.C): This is applied when dressing wounds.
RECORD BOOK: This is used for recording the names and addresses of the casualties treated. The type of injury sustained, materials used for treatment and recommendation are also stated in the record book.
DISPOSABLE GLOVES: These are used for protecting the hands during treatment and also when disposing waste materials.
HAND TOWEL: This is used for cleaning.
GLUCOSE/SUGAR AND SALT SOLUTION: These are used for preparing energy drink and ORT [oral re-hydration therapy] drink.
IODINE: This is used to induce bleeding in wounds, especially, punctured wounds.
METHYLATED SPIRIT: This is used to wash wounds, especially, old wounds (reactionary bleeding).
BANDAGES: Bandages such as crepe bandage, gauze bandage, triangular bandage etc are also used for covering wounds and immobilization of fractured bones in the body.




SHARE POST