Diabetes -Types, Signs and Treatment

This is a condition in which the body fails to regulate the concentration of sugar (glucose) in the blood. Blood-sugar levels in the body are normally controlled by a hormone called insulin produced by the pancreas. As a result, sugar builds up in the blood and can cause hyperglycaemia (below). People with diabetes have to control their blood sugar with diet and insulin injections or tablets. Too much of insulin or too little sugar can cause hypoglycaemia (opposite). If a known diabetic casualty appears unwell, give sugar. This will rapidly correct hypoglycaemia and will do little harm in hyperglycaemia.

Types of Diabetes

  1. HYPERGLYCAEMIA: This is when the sugar content in the blood is said to be high and this is caused by the lack of insulin in the body in order to regulate the sugar content in the blood. Hyperglycaemia, over a long period, can result in unconsciousness. The casualty will drift into this state over a few days. It requires urgent treatment in hospital.

Signs and Symptoms of Hyperglycaemia
  • Warm
  • Dry skin
  • Rapid pulse and breathing
  • Fruity/sweet breath
  • Excessive thirst
  • Drowsiness
  • Unconsciousness

2    HYPOGLYCAEMIA: This is when the sugar content in the blood is said to be low due to too much of insulin and too little of sugar in the body and thereby affect the function of the brain. This problem is characterized by a rapidly deteriorating level of response. Hypoglycaemia can occur in people with diabetes and, more rarely, appear with an epileptic seizure.

Signs and Symptoms of Hypoglycaemia
  • A history of diabetes; the casualty may recognize the onset of a “hypo” attack
  • Weakness, faintness, or hunger
  • Palpitations and muscle tremors
  • Strange actions or behavior; the casualty may seem confused or belligerent
  • Sweating
  • Cold and clammy skin
  • Pulse may be rapid and strong
  • Deteriorating level of response

Treatment of Diabetes
  • If the casualty is conscious, give him a sugary drink, sugar lumps, chocolate, or other sweet food.
  • If the casualty is unconscious, be ready to resuscitate if necessary and place in recovery position
  • Seek medical advise

Tremor on the Richter Scale 6.6 Battered off Coast of El Salvador


A tremor on the Richter scale of 6.6 battered off coast of El Salvador on Thursday 30th May, 2019. According to the initial reports, there were no casualties and damages said Salvadoran authorities.

The quake struck around 40 kilometers south of San Salvador at a depth of 40 miles, according to the US Geological Survey (USGS) data.

However, the Pacific Tsunami Warning Center did not issue an alert for the quake but the Salvadoran environment ministry issued one of its own, predicting sea level variations of up to 12 inches.

Moreso, the Education of  Ministry has canceled classes in the coastal areas. Coastal residents should avoid entering the water for four hours after the quake, the ministry said on Twitter.

Further more, the President of El Salvador Nayib Bukele tweeted on Twitter that the tremor was felt "throughout 100 percent of the country."

Consequently, no casualties or damage have been reported so far but police and firemen are fanning out across the country to evaluate the situation, said Civil Protection chief Jorge Melendez.

Chelsea Wins the Europa League, Hazard Leaves!

Chelsea won the Europa League and Eden Hazard is leaving Chelsea next season. Arsenal was defeated by Chelsea in the Europa League final in Baku. Arsenal having finished fifth in the Premier League, are now consigned to another season outside the Champions League.

However, Eden Hazard appeared to confirm his Chelsea exit after scoring twice in his side's 4-1 Europa League final defeat of Arsenal.  

His brace helped Maurizio Sarri claim his first major trophy as Chelsea crushed Arsenal on Wednesday.

Olivier Giroud sparked the landslide against his former employers in the 49th minute before Pedro put a second past retiring Gunners goalkeeper Petr Cech.

In perhaps his final appearance before a mooted move to Real Madrid, star man Hazard struck two second half goals to confirm Chelsea's second triumph in six seasons in this competition."I think it's a goodbye but in football you never know.

My dream was to play in the Premier League. I played here for seven years for one of the biggest clubs in the world and maybe it's time for a new challenge," Hazard said while speaking to a reporter immediately after the match.

Definition and Aims of Treating Defibrillation

Defibrillation is the emergency procedure where first aiders apply an electronic device called an automated external defibrillator or AED to the chest of a cardiac arrest casualty and the device delivers a don't follows controlled electric shock to the casualty’s heart.
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  • Send someone for the AED if not already.
  • Ensure safety
  • If multiple rescuers are present, assign tasks for each rescuers
  • Turn on the AED
  • Attach the electrode pads
  • If multiple rescuers, continue CPR while the pads are attached
  • Follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED
  • Ensure that nobody touches the casualty while the AED is analyzing the rhythm

If a shock is indicated:
  • Ensure that nobody touches the casualty
  • Push the shock button as directed
  • Fully-automatic AEDs will deliver the shock automatically
  • Continue to follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED
If no shock is indicated:
  • Immediately resume CPR using a ratio of 30 compressions to 2 rescue breaths.
  • Continue to follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED.
  • Send someone for the AED if not already.
  • Ensure safety
  • If multiple rescuers are present, assign tasks for each rescuers
  • Turn on the AED
  • Attach the electrode pads
  • If multiple rescuers, continue CPR while the pads are attached
  • Follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED
  • Ensure that nobody touches the casualty while the AED is analyzing the rhythm

If a shock is indicated:
  • Ensure that nobody touches the casualty
  • Push the shock button as directed
  • Fully-automatic AEDs will deliver the shock automatically
  • Continue to follow the voice/visual prompts of the AED
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Aims of Treatment
  • To maintain an open airway
  • To assess and record the level of response
  • To arrange, if necessary, urgent removal to hospital
  • To treat any associated injuries
  • To gather and retain any circumstantial evidence of the cause of the condition.

Pope Delivers His Speech In 105th World Day of Migrants and Refugees

Pope 2019

Pope Francis has delivered his speech in the 105th World Day of Migrants and Refugees indicating that making decisions based on prejudice is signal to world moral decline.

In the speech delivered by Pope Francis a day after the European Parliament elections Pope Francis uttered that discriminations against migrants “is  an alarm bell warning of world's moral decline” which has eaten deep in developmental stages of fundamental right.

Pope Francis released his message on Monday for the 105th World Day of Migrants and Refugees, which will be commemorated on September 29th.

Sequel to the content of the message, the officials responded that his Holiness message is not political but pastoral.
Further more,  Pope Francis said the presence of migrants in wealthy countries is instead an invitation “to recover some of those essential dimensions of our Christian existence and our humanity.”

Valencia Becomes the Copa Rey Winner

Sport News

Valencia has became the Copa del Rey winner after they overthrew Barcelona on Saturday.  

Barcelona was defeated by Valencia in just concluded 2018-2019 football league competition. With this attainment, Valencia is the now the new Copa del Rey champion after they defeated Barcelona and hindering the Blaugrana winning the cup five times consecutively.

More so, but goals from Kevin Gameiro and Rodrigo handed the champions a shock defeat at the Benito VillamarĂ­n Stadium that piles more pressure on Ernesto Valverde – with Lionel Messi’s effort with 18 minutes left nothing more than a consolation.

Recall that, after Valencia woeful Champions League capitulation against Liverpool, Barcelona sought to placate their frustrated fans with a domestic double having wrapped up the league title with three games to spare in April.

However, the Catalans could have won their fourth domestic double in five years on Saturday but it was not to be.

The Call to Courage

Receive What You're Praying For

When we face hardship, we often try to drum up boldness or talk ourselves into bravery. God, however, is the one who renews our faith. He will be with us. And His presence calls us to courage.

What causes your heart to tremble in fear? How can you seek God’s presence and power in moving toward courage?

Among a display of male statues (Nelson Mandela, Winston Churchill, Mahatma Gandhi, and others) in London’s Parliament Square, stands a lone statue of a woman. The solitary woman is Millicent Fawcett, who fought for the right of women to vote. She’s immortalized in bronze—holding a banner displaying words she offered in a tribute to a fellow suffragist: “Courage calls to courage everywhere.” Fawcett insisted that one person’s courage emboldens others—calling timid souls into action.

As David prepared to hand his throne over to his son Solomon, he explained the responsibilities that would soon rest heavy on his shoulders. It’s likely Solomon quivered under the weight of what he faced: leading Israel to follow all God’s instructions, guarding the land God had entrusted to them, and overseeing the monumental task of building the temple (1 Chronicles 28:8–10).

Knowing Solomon’s trembling heart, David offered his son powerful words: “Be strong and courageous… Do not be afraid or discouraged, for the Lord God, my God, is with you” (v. 20). Real courage would never arise from Solomon’s own skill or confidence but rather from relying on God’s presence and strength. God provided the courage Solomon needed.

God, we're often faced with challenges that strike fear in us. For some, fear of failure or looking bad can hold them back from moving forward in the direction you are leading, others rely on their own ability to overcome any challenge and don't trust You to lead. Whatever we may be facing today, we pray that You would give us the courage and the humility to follow You, trusting that You will make the way. Thank You Lord. In Jesus name we pray. Amen!

“Be strong and courageous." 1 Chronicles 28:20

Today's Scripture: 1 Chronicles 28:8-10

Bible in a Year: 1 Chronicles 28–29; John 9:24–41
Reference : Our Daily Bread By Winn Collier

Fire Breaks Out on the Cargo Ship in Thailand

A fire broke out on Saturday at 6.35 am (23:35 GMT Friday) on the cargo ship referred to KMTC Hong Kong in Thailand, which was moored to the port terminal and leaving at least 25 workers suffering from smoke inhalation and other injuries, officials said Saturday.

In the consequence of the above, a district around Laem Chabang deep-sea port in Chonburi province, located two hours south of capital Bangkok, has been declared a "danger zone", said port director Yuthana Mokkhao.

Further more, the district around Laem Chabang deep-sea port in Chonburi province, located two hours south of capital Bangkok, has been declared a "danger zone", said port director Yuthana Mokkhao.

Yuthana Mokkhao also said that people on the port were affected by smoke inhalation and hit by small shrapnel from the containers.

More so, at least 25 port workers suffered from minor injuries and irritation from the fire, said Sivaporn Buapong, chief of Chonburi province's Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Department.

New South Africa President Sworn In

Cyril Ramaphosa became the new South Africa president has been sworn into office after Jacob Zuma. Cyril Ramaphosa first took office last year after former President Jacob Zuma was pressured to resign amid corruption scandals that badly damaged public faith in the ANC.

Ahead of the election, Mr Ramaphosa apologised to South Africans for the political turmoil. He also vowed to continue the fight against mismanagement and graft that has hurt the country’s economy, the most developed in sub-Saharan Africa.

The inauguration followed his ruling African National Congress party’s 57.5% victory in this month’s election. It was the party’s weakest election showing since the ANC took power at the end of the harsh system of racial apartheid in 1994.

There was no sign at Saturday’s ceremony of Mr Zuma, who has insisted he did nothing wrong and that allegations are politically motivated. His allies within the ANC leadership pose a challenge to Mr Ramaphosa as he pursues reforms.

Messi Receives More European Golden than Ronaldo

European Golden Shoe Award

Lionel Messi has received more European Golden Shoes than his contemporary Cristiano Ronaldo.

Lionel Messi has been awarded the European Golden Shoe for the sixth time due to the fact that he was the player with highest number of goals in the just concluded 2018-2019 football season in Europe. The Argentine has six Golden Shoes in total.

In other hand way round, Cristiano Ronaldo was the last player not to play for a Spanish club to win the award, when he scored 31 goals in the 2007/08 Premier League campaign. The Portuguese has four Golden Shoes in total.

Another history making was that Lionel Messi has become the second oldest player to win the award with an age of 31 years, 11 months and 25 days. Hugo Sanchez was a month and a day older than Messi when he won the prize in 1990.

However, this is the third consecutive year that Messi has claimed the award and the 11th campaign in a row where the winner has come from LaLiga Santander, although Cristiano Ronaldo and Luis Suarez shared the Shoe in 2014.

Messi's 36 goals in 34 games in LaLiga Santander this season meant that he finished three ahead of Paris Saint-Germain's Kylian Mbappe which means Mbappe had 33 goals only.

More over,  Mbappe had to score five against Reims on the final day of the Ligue 1 season on Friday but could only manage one as PSG lost 3-1.

Definition, Causes, Symptoms And Treatment Of Heart Attack

Heart attack is most commonly caused by a sudden obstruction of the blood supply to part of the heart muscle. It is a sudden illness or obstruction in the coronary artery (coronary thrombosis) that disturbs the breathing. The main risk is that the heart will stop beating.

The effect of a heart attack depends largely on how much of the heart muscle is affected; many casualties recover completely. Heart attack is also caused by Cardio Vascular disease called ATHEROSCLEROSIS (This is the build up of plague caused by cholesterol and other debris that narrows the arteries (clot)). Drug such as aspirin is used to dissolve the blood clot and limit the extent of damage to the heart muscle.

Causes of Heart Attack
  • Blood clot in the coronary artery located in the heart
  • High blood pressure
  • Hypertension
  • Overlabouring the heart.
  • The size of the heart and the size of the body.

Signs and Symptoms of Heart Attack
  • Persistent crushing of central chest often spreading to the jaw, neck and down one or both arms towards the left hand side where the heart is located
  • Breathlessness, and discomfort occurring high in the abdomen, which may feel similar to severe indigestion
  • Strain in the heart
  • Sudden faintness or dizziness
  • A sense of impending doom
  • Collapse, often without any warning
  • “Ashen” skin, and blueness at the lips
  • A rapid, weak, or irregular pulse
  • Profuse sweating, cool, clammy skin
  • Extreme gasping for air i.e. hair hunger

Treatment of Heart Attack
  • Make the casualty as comfortable as possible to ease the strain on his heart. A half-sitting position, with the casualty’s head and shoulders well supported and his knees bent.
  • If the casualty is fully conscious, give him a full dose (300mg) aspirin tablet and advise him to chew it slowly.
  • Seek medical advise
  • Be prepared to resuscitate if necessary
  • Constantly monitor and record vital signs – level of response, pulse, and breathing.
  • Transport the casualty to the hospital.
Heart Attack

Defintion, Causes, Signs and Treatment of Stroke (Apoplexy)

The term “stroke” describes a condition in which the blood supply to part of the brain is suddenly and seriously impaired by a blood clot or a ruptured blood vessel. Stroke occurs more commonly in later life and in people who suffer from high blood pressure or some other circulatory disorder. The effect of a stroke depends on how much, and which part, of the brain is affected. In some cases, the condition can be fatal; however, many people make a complete recovery from a stroke.

Causes of Stroke
  • Weakness in the blood vessels, especially, those that transport blood to the brain.
  • High blood pressure
  • Blood clot in the blood vessels
  • Ruptured blood vessels

Signs and Symptoms of Stroke
  • Problems with speech and swallowing
  • Sudden confusion, trouble speaking or understanding.
  • Loss of power or movement in the limbs
  • Sudden, severe headache
  • Sudden dizziness, trouble walking, loss of balance or coordination and bladder control. Emotional mental state that could be mistaken for drunkenness.
  • Sudden or gradual loss of consciousness
  • Sudden numbness or weakness – especially to only one side of the body
  • Sudden trouble seeing in one or both eyes.
  • Sudden severe headache with no known cause.

Treatment of Stroke
  • If the casualty is conscious, make her lie down with her head and shoulders slightly raised and supported. Incline her head to the affected side, and place a towel on her shoulder to absorb any dribbling
  • Loose all clothing that might impair the casualty’s breathing.
  • Reassure her
  • Monitor and record vital signs level of response, pulse, and breathing
  • Seek medical help or transport the casualty to the hospital.

Risks Factors of Stroke
  • Atrial  Fibrillation
  • Hypertension
  • Cardiac Disease
  • No exercise
  • Diabetes
  • Smoking
  • Heavy alcohol use

Do not give the casualty anything to eat or drink because a stroke may make it difficult to swallow.