Female genital mutilation (FGM) is defined by the World Health Organization (WHO) as all procedures which involve partial or total removal of the external female genitalia and/or injury to the female genital organs, whether for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons. FGM is an unhealthy traditional practice inflicted on girls and women worldwide. FGM is widely recognized as a violation of human rights, which is deeply rooted in cultural beliefs and perceptions over decades and generations with no easy task for change. Anesthetics are not used and the practice is usually carried out using basic tools such as knives, scissors, scalpels, pieces of glass and razor blades. Often iodine or a mixture of herbs is placed on the wound to tighten the vagina and stop the bleeding.

Thus in cultures where it is widely practiced, FGM has become important part of the cultural identity of girls and women and may also impart a sense of pride, a coming of age and a feeling of community membership (UNICEF, 2005). FGM is a procedure which causes a number of health problems for woman and girls. There is a great deal of evidence indicating extremely detrimental long and short term health consequences (UNICEF 2002).

The practice of female genital mutilation occurs throughout the world.  The International Planned Parenthood Federation estimates that between 85 and 115 million girls and women living today in the Arab world, sub-Saharan Africa, Malaysia, Indonesia, as well as in immigrant populations in Canada, the United States, Europe, Australia and New Zealand, have undergone this traditional procedure (duRocher, 1992).  Furthermore, the World Health Organization (WHO) estimates that up to 2 million girls are at risk of female genital mutilation annually (World Health Organization, 1994).

Currently, only anecdotal accounts outline the range and forms of female genital mutilation allegedly practiced in North America, Europe, Australia and New Zealand.  Data does exist, however, for the regions where FGM remains a traditional custom. Sunna circumcision continues in North and South Yemen, Saudi Arabia, Iraq, Jordan, Syria, and Southern Algeria. Cases of excision are found throughout Africa, including Egypt, Mozambique, Botswana, and Lesotho.  Infibulations remains customary in Somalia, Ethiopia, the Sudan, Kenya, Nigeria, Mali, Burkina Faso (previously Upper Volta), and parts of the Ivory Coast.  Although little information is available, it has been documented that this procedure is practiced by Muslim populations in the Philippines, Malaysia, Pakistan, Indonesia, Brazil, Mexico, and Peru (duRocher, 1992).
Current statistics indicated that more than 3 million girls experience genital mutilation worldwide each year and that between 100 to 140 million girls and women in Africa and the Middle East have undergone FGM (WHO, 2008). This study sought to assess the current status of FGM and it is hoped that this study will assist government in re-evaluating existing policies so towards the eradication of FGM in Nigeria.

Nigeria has the highest absolute number of female genital mutilation (FGM) worldwide, accounting for about one-quarter of the estimated 115–130 million circumcised women in the world. In Nigeria, subjection of girls and women to obscure traditional practices is legendary, but this practice of FGM has no known health benefits and it is reported to be harmful to girls and women. The victim suffers severe pain during cutting and the removal of the external genitalia and this damages the healthy, normal genital tissue thereby interfering with the natural functioning of the body. Immediate and long-term health consequences of FGM include severe bleeding, infections, retention of urine, and later, potential complications during childbirth that can lead to maternal and newborn deaths.
According to Okeke et al., (2012), he reported that the national prevalence rate of FGM is 41% in Nigeria among adult women. Evidence abound that the prevalence of FGM is declining. The ongoing drive to eradicate FGM is tackled by World Health Organization (WHO), United Nations International Children Fund (UNICEF), Federation of International Obstetrics and Gynecology (FIGO), African Union, The economic commission for Africa, and many women organizations. 

Custom and tradition are the main justification given for the practice of female genital mutilation (Muganda 2002). People adhere to this practice because it is part of their culture and fulfilling this aspect of culture gives them a sense of pride and satisfaction. The practice of FGM is one of the most significant health and human right issues in the world (UNICEF, 2005). Female genital mutilation is commonly practiced in this part of the country. However, there is paucity of information regarding this. This study therefore sought to determine the awareness, knowledge, attitude and practices of FGM among adults of Ede North Local Government Area of Osun State

The general objective of the study is to assess the awareness, knowledge, attitude and practices of Female Genital Mutilation among adults of Ede North Local Government Area, Osun state.

1. To determine the awareness of respondent on FGM 
2. To determine the knowledge and attitude of respondent towards FGM.
3. To assess the practice of FGM among adults of Ede North Local Government Area, Osun state. 

1. Are the adults in Ede North Local Government Area aware of FGM?
2. Are the adults in Ede North Local Government have knowledge on FGM?
3. What is the attitude of adults of Ede North Local Government towards FGM?
4. Do Ede North Local Government adults practice FGM?

1. Awareness: The state or quality of being aware of something (English Dictionary).
2. Knowledge: The fact of knowing about something; general understanding or familiarity with a subject, place, situation e.t.c (English Dictionary). 
3. Attitude: A predisposition or a tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain idea, object, person or situation (English Dictionary). 
4. Practice: A customary action, habit or behavior, a manner or routine (English Dictionary).
5. Adult: is a person who has attained the age of majority and is therefore regarded as independent, self-sufficient, and responsible. The typical age of attaining adulthood is 18, although definition may vary by legal rights and country (Wikipedia Dictionary).
6. Female Genital Mutilation: this means all procedures that involve partial or total removal of female external genitalia or injury to the genital organs for cultural or any other non-therapeutic reasons (WHO, 2013). This can be interchangeably with female circumcision or female genital cut.
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South Africa Federation of Trade Unions (Saftu) said it is outraged and disgusted - but not surprised - by the passing of the minimum wage bill, which was overwhelmingly endorsed by parliament on Tuesday.

The South African trade union has accused the government of "legitimising poverty" after the country set its first-ever minimum wage.

The bill sets the wage at a minimum of 20 rand ($1.59; £1.20) an hour, which, for a 40-hour week, sets the wage at about $278 per month.

The union said parliament missed an opportunity to free workers from the oppressive wage gap.

In 2016, a commission led by President Cyril Ramaphosa - who was deputy president at the time - found almost 50% of employed South Africans earned less than the proposed national minimum wage.

The other trade union federation Cosatu, which has formed an alliance with the government, has endorsed the proposal. The bill will have to be sent to parliament’s upper house before it can be signed into law by President Ramaphosa.
The government said it hoped the new guideline would improve the lives of the lowest-paid workers in the labour market and alleviate poverty and inequality. The wage bill will cover about 75% of farm workers and domestic workers.


Adekunke Gold , Afro-pop artiste, has finally disclosed who the love of his life is. The artist who has always kept his relationship private made the revelation when asked to clarify the rumours that he was dating fellow artiste, Simi.

Although attempting to avoid the question, Gold acknowledged, ‘I’ve said it before that she is the ‘Orente’. This comes after several speculations that the two had been dating.

Contrary to this fact, some other fans had also believed that Simi was rather in a relationship with fellow artiste, Falz, going by the ‘chemistry’ they both seemed to have after several performances together. But when asked about marriage, Gold, however, said there are no plans for now. “I don’t know, maybe soon, maybe next year or next two years,” he stated.

Speaking about his career, the artist who just released his sophomore album, About 30, said he would spend the rest of the year touring.


In the study, the participants from the three existing cohorts were all of European ancestry and aged between 16 and 102, and among this group, those who exhibited higher intelligence were 28 percent more likely to need glasses or contact lenses and 32 percent more likely to be shortsighted.

The largest study to date investigating the genetic underpinnings of intelligence suggests there is, in fact, a link between wearing glasses (or contact lenses) and cognitive function, with intelligent people almost 30 percent more likely to be glasses wearers. "This study, the largest genetic study of cognitive function, has identified many genetic differences that contribute to the heritability of thinking skills," says genetic statistician Gail Davies from the University of Edinburgh in the UK.

Davies and her team combed through the genetic information of over 300,000 individuals compiled from existing genomic databases, in which participants submitted samples for DNA analysis, answered questionnaires, and underwent tests designed to give a measure of their general cognitive ability.

When they analysed the genetic data, the researchers discovered 148 genome-wide regions associated with general cognitive function, including 58 genomic sites that hadn't previously been linked with intelligence. They also found 42 genome-wide loci linked to reaction time, 40 of which are new to science.


The once-powerful movie mogul, who was arrested last week, has been indicted on charges of a criminal sexual act in the first degree and rape in the first and third degrees.

“This indictment brings the defendant another step closer to accountability for the crimes of violence with which he is now charged,” Vance said in a statement. “Our office will try this case not in the press, but in the courtroom where it belongs. The defendant’s recent assault on the integrity of the survivors and the legal process is predictable.”

Vance added: “We are confident that when the jury hears the evidence, it will reject these attacks out of hand.”

The indictment came just hours after Weinstein lawyer Ben Brafman’s office announced that its request to postpone Weinstein’s appearance before the grand jury was denied. Brafman said in a statement that “an indictment was inevitable due to the unfair political pressure” on Vance.
The grand jury voted to indict Harvey Weinstein on three charges, including rape, Manhattan District Attorney Cyrus Vance announced Wednesday.

“After being unfairly denied access to critical information about this case that was needed to defend him before the Grand Jury, Mr. Weinstein’s attorneys decided that there was not sufficient time to properly prepare Mr. Weinstein,” said the statement released to media outlets.


The Frenchman , Zinedine Zidane has resigned as manager of Real Madrid today. He announced his decision after calling for an impromptu press conference following a meeting with club President Florentino Perez.

Zidane enjoyed sensational success with the Los Blancos in two and a half years, winning the Champions League thrice and the LaLiga once apart from the Club World Cup. While the reason for the presser was not given, most of the Spanish news outlets had already come to the conclusion that Zidane had resigned. And it was proved right by the French great who confirmed the decision to step down.

Florentino Perez said, "Zinedine Zidane communicated to me yesterday the unexpected decision that he will leave as coach."

Zidane explained, "I love this club and the president who gave me the chance to play for this club and manage the club of my dreams. But everything changes and that's why I've taken the decision to leave. What I think is that this team needs to continue winning but I think it needs a change, a different voice, another methodology and that's why I took this decision."


The 39-year-old has signed a three-year deal with the Pride Park outfit, tying him to the club until 2021.

The midfield icon, who counts three Premier League titles, four FA Cups and a Champions League title amongst his honours, takes over with immediate effect.

Chelsea legend Frank Lampard has been appointed manager of Derby County, the club announced on Thursday morning.

Upon his appointment, the former England international said: "I’ve always wanted to manage a club with a big tradition and history like Derby County, so this is a huge opportunity.

"This is my first job as a manager, but I’ve worked closely with some of the best coaches in the game and I’m confident in my own abilities and those of the team around me, including the board."


It was due to offload in Algeria's western port of Oran but suspicions were raised when the captain refused to dock for three days.

Acting on a tip-off, the Algerian coastguard forced the boat into port. The drugs were then found aboard the Liberian-registered ship, the Vega Mercury, in boxes marked "halal meat".

Algerian authorities have seized more than 700kg (1,543lb) of cocaine smuggled aboard a container ship and made 20 arrests.

The vessel was carrying frozen meat from Brazil and had previously docked in Valencia, Spain.


Hungary's parliament is debating the draft laws despite the fact that very few migrants or refugees try to enter Hungary now, due to a double-thickness razor-wire fence on the southern border. The legislation is called a "Stop Soros Act", reflecting the government's antipathy towards billionaire philanthropist George Soros, whom it accuses of encouraging Muslim immigration to Europe.

The Hungarian government has drafted new laws to criminalise those who help irregular migrants seeking asylum. If passed in its current form, the legislation could make printing leaflets with information for asylum-seekers and offering them food or legal advice a criminal offence. The constitution will also be amended to prevent other EU countries from transferring asylum seekers to Hungary. Nationalist Prime Minister Viktor Orban is defying EU policy on migration.

Hungary, Poland, the Czech Republic and Slovakia oppose an EU scheme for relocating 160,000 refugees from Syria and Eritrea to EU partners of Italy and Greece, where migrant camps are overcrowded.


Gen Kim was due to fly to New York on Wednesday, after speaking with Chinese officials in Beijing. Confirming the news, Mr Trump said that meetings were under way about the summit "and more".

The former intelligence chief Gen Kim Yong-chol is the most senior North Korean official to visit the US since 2000. US President Donald Trump confirmed the news on Tuesday, saying he had put "a great team together" for the talks. The proposed meeting with Kim Jong-un was thrown into doubt after Mr Trump announced he was pulling out last week.

But both sides have been working to get the summit - scheduled for 12 June in Singapore - back on track. It would be the first time a North Korean leader has met a sitting US president. The introduction of Gen Kim to negotiations is significant, as it underlines North Korea's desire to ensure the talks go ahead. A former spy chief, he has been part of recent high-profile diplomatic overtures by the North.


A Japanese P-3 maritime patrol plane detected the vessels, which lay alongside each other connected by hoses, on May 19, with one of the ships flying what seemed like a Chinese flag, it said. Japan is urging the United States and other countries to stick to a strict imposition of UN sanctions on North Korea until it abandons the development of nuclear weapons and ballistic missiles.

Japan on Tuesday said it had detected what appeared to be a Chinese-flagged vessel, 350 km (218 miles) off Shanghai, conducting illegal transfers to a North Korean ship. “Following a comprehensive assessment, the government of Japan strongly suspects that they conducted ship-to-ship transfers banned by UNSCR,” Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a press release, referring to UN Security Council resolutions.

Japan on Tuesday said it had detected what appeared to be a Chinese-flagged vessel, 350 km (218 miles) off Shanghai, conducting illegal transfers to a North Korean ship. “Following a comprehensive assessment, the government of Japan strongly suspects that they conducted ship-to-ship transfers banned by UNSCR,” Japan’s Ministry of Foreign Affairs said in a press release, referring to UN Security Council resolutions


In January, A legal practitioner, Kingsley Ekwem, declined to testify as a prosecution witness in the trial of the former governor and two others over an alleged N3.2billion fraud. Kalu has defected from the Peoples Democratic Party (PDP) to the All Progressives Congress (APC), while members of the opposition party have continued to accuse the APC government of a one-sided anti-corruption war.

The spokesperson for the commission, Mr Wilson Uwujaren, said on Tuesday during his appearance on Channels Forum, a Channels Television programme which brings opinion leaders and policymakers together to discuss and find solutions to Nigeria’s problems. The EFCC had charged Mr Kalu with fraud allegations running into billions of naira when he served as governor of Abia State.

The Economic and Financial Crimes Commission (EFCC) has insisted that the fact that a former governor of Abia State, Mr Orji Kalu, changed his political party won’t stop the alleged corruption case involving him.


The Super Eagles are expected to leave the country today for London in preparation towards their match against England at the Wembley Stadium on Saturday evening, another pre-World Cup friendly.

The meeting was held just before the commencement of the weekly Federal Executive Council, (FEC). Also present at the meeting was the Youth and Sports Minister, Solomon Dalung.

President Muhammadu Buhari has asked the Super Eagles to play a clean and fair game but bring the World Cup trophy back home. The President stated this on Wednesday when he met with the Super Eagles at the Presidential Villa in Abuja, the nation’s capital. He said that the team is very young but encourage them to display the Nigerian spirit and their knowledge to a great advantage over their opponents


Osinbajo said this in his short remarks at a gala night/dinner organised to round off activities marking the 2018 Democracy Day. The Vice-President stood in for President Muhammadu Buhari at the event held at the old Banquet Hall of the Presidential Villa, Abuja. Osinbajo said it was important for the current government officials to thank God for having been in office for three years.

He said he would not have believed the prophesy if anybody had told him five years ago that he would become the nation’s Vice-President. Osinbajo said the administration had recorded great success.

Vice-President Yemi Osinbajo on Tuesday said it was not fair for anybody to compare the present administration’s performance in just three years to the 16 years spent by the Peoples Democratic Party in the saddle. He said the fact that the opposition PDP had started assessing the present government even shortly after spending two years in office showed that “we have performed well.”


As families of victims are mourning their loved ones killed in the operation, the robbery gang leaders are making mind-boggling confessions. At least 22 suspected in connection with the bank robbery, including the ringleaders, are currently detained for investigations. According to a reliable source, a dismissed Corporal in the Nigeria Police, Mr. Micheal Adikwu, lead the operation.

The leaders of the robbery gang that struck banks in Offa in Kwara on April 5 are reported to be making startling confessions. The robbery led to the death of more than 30 persons, including policemen and loss of millions of Naira.

He was assisted by another leader, Mr. Kunle Ogunleye aka Arrow, and one Abel and others. They have confessed to the operatives of the Inspector-General of Police Special Intelligence and Response Team (IRT), led by Deputy Commissioner of Police, Mr Abba Kyari. Adikwu, the dismissed corporal, who organised and led the bank robbery operation has confessed to have killed over 20 people, the majority of them policemen.


The aspirants who came closest were Segun Oni (481 votes), Kayode Ojo (281), Olufemi Richard Bamisile (179), Oluyede Oluwole (121), and Aluko Daniel Olugbenga (86). Fayose has already boasted that an “electoral disaster” awaits Fayemi in July, saying: “He will suffer the worst defeat of his political career… after the July 14 election, he will go into political oblivion.”

Fayemi, who will be the All Progressives Congress (APC) flagbearer in the election having won a rescheduled primary of the party on May 12, will be in office today to address a press conference where he will give an account of his stewardship in the ministry and finally sign off at 12:00 pm. To become the Ekiti APC candidate, Fayemi polled 941 votes.
Dr. Kayode Fayemi has resigned his appointment as Minister of Mines and Steel Development to concentrate on defeating Kolapo Olusola, Governor Ayo Fayose’s deputy, at the July 14 governorship election in Ekiti State. Fayemi tendered his resignation letter to President Muhammadu Buhari three weeks ago, but it officially takes effect from Wednesday, May 30.


 Struck by the constant news of suffering, poverty and ill health in Africa, Kerry and three of her mates decided that they should to something to help make a difference.  
   A national charity was holding a postcard campaign to petition the government to help the crisis. This would be  the perfect opportunity to raise awareness in the school and do something productive at the same time. The four friends got together to divide up jobs and plain the events.
    Kerry would contact the charity and get info, postercards, Mark would speak to head teacher and ask permission to speak in assemblies, hand out postcards around the school over the week. Dave would contact the local press to let the community know what was happening at the school and why.
   With a week to go, Mark called Kerry and said he hadn't had time to speak to the head. Next was Dave -he hadn't called the paper and no surprise to Kerry , it soon came to light that Siobhan hadn't fulfilled her part of the bargain either.
   Kerry had only been trying to do a good thing - putting herself out to make a difference and her mates had just let her down, one by one. Why did no one else care? Frustration, betrayal, anger, but most of all, a total sense of loneliness came over Kerry as she struggled to work out what on earth to do now.
   Take a look at 1Kings 19:11-18 “And he said, “Go out and stand on the mount before the Lord.” And behold, the Lord passed by, and a great and strong wind tore the mountains and broke in pieces the rocks before the Lord, but the Lord was not in the wind. And after the wind an earthquake, but the Lord was not in the earthquake. And after the earthquake a fire, but the Lord was not in the fire. And after the fire the sound of a low whisper. And when Elijah heard it, he wrapped his face in his cloak and went out and stood at the entrance of the cave. And behold, there came a voice to him and said, “What are you doing here, Elijah?” He said, “I have been very jealous for the Lord, the God of hosts. For the people of Israel have forsaken your covenant, thrown down your altars, and killed your prophets with the sword, and I, even I only, am left, and they seek my life, to take it away.” And the Lord said to him, “Go, return on your way to the wilderness of Damascus. And when you arrive, you shall anoint Hazael to be king over Syria. And Jehu the son of Nimshi you shall anoint to be king over Israel, and Elisha the son of Shaphat of Abel-meholah you shall anoint to be prophet in your place. And the one who escapes from the sword of Hazael shall Jehu put to death, and the one who escapes from the sword of Jehu shall Elisha put to death.Yet I will leave seven thousand in Israel, all the knees that have not bowed to Baal, and every mouth that has not kissed him.”

Questions To Consider
  • Compare Kerry with Elijah. Why do you think Elijah felt down alone?
  • God comforted Elijah -not with big show of awesome power, but with a quiet, gentle sound. How often do you think of God as close and comforting?


The sell-off in Italian bonds deepened, with the yield on two-year debt breaking through the 2% barrier. The yield on the bond is set for its biggest one-day jump in 26 years.

Movements in bond prices are important as they affect the cost of borrowing for the government. Italy's debt currently stands at 130% of its economic output.

European financial markets have been hit by political upheaval in Italy. The prospect of elections as early as September, along with the possibility of eurosceptic parties strengthening their position, has hit markets. Italy's benchmark FTSE MIB sank 2.7%.

The UK's FTSE was down 1.2%, Germany's Dax down 1.3%, and France's Cac down 2%.

The bond sell-off hit the share price of Italian banks exposed to government debt, with Intesa Sanpaolo, BPER Banca, Unicredit and UBI Banca falling sharply.

Meanwhile, the pan-European Stoxx 600 fell 1.6%, with banks the worst-performing shares, and the euro fell against the dollar and pound.


In photographs posted on the club's official website, every player in the squad is shown wearing the kit, bar Ronaldo, with a shirt bearing his name replacing the usual portrait of him.

Cristiano Ronaldo's absence from the launch may set tongues wagging, too, after the Portugal superstar hinted at a potential exit from the club in the immediate aftermath of Real's win in Kiev.

Gareth Bale may be linked with a mega-money move to Manchester United, but the Wales forward has featured in Real Madrid's latest kit launch.

Nevertheless, the attacker features heavily in Madrid's kit launch, along with Marcelo, Toni Kroos, Karim Benzema and Nacho Fernandez. United have been heavily linked with the 28-year-old, while former club Tottenham are said to have first refusal on any deal.


UEFA has a rule which allows cases to be opened for cases of serious misconduct that were not seen by match officials, but they said the rule "is not applied in this case." UEFA added that "no other protest has been lodged."

The Real Madrid captain struck Liverpool's goalkeeper in the head with his right elbow during a Real Madrid attack.

Replays also appeared to show Ramos being pushed in Karius' direction by Liverpool defender Virgil van Dijk. Sergio Ramos has avoided disciplinary action from UEFA for his off-the-ball clash with Loris Karius in Saturday's Champions League final.


“Overall, we are on track, I thank and commend all who have worked so hard with us to achieve these successes. I assure you that our people will continue to see and experience more progress, prosperity and greater security,” he had said. Two days earlier, the Peoples Democratic Party asked the President not to address Nigerians on Democracy Day.

President Buhari made the promise at the 2018 Democracy Day lecture in Abuja, the nation’s capital. He also defended his administration’s achievements in the last three years and appreciated those who contributed to the successes recorded.

President Muhammadu Buhari is currently addressing the nation as Nigerians mark the 2018 Democracy Day. Beyond celebrating Nigeria’s democracy, May 29 also marks the conclusion of the President’s third year in office. A day earlier, the President had promised Nigerians a more secure and prosperous nation.



Instructional aids are those material or resources used in any understanding of learning experience.
Ikotun (2000) define instructional materials as all information carriers that have educational content. They are used instructional to encourage the achievement of state objectives.
Instructional materials provide the learners or pupils the opportunity to learn through all the five sense. Such as, eyes seeing, nose smelling, hands touching, mouth tasting, ears hearing.
The more the sense are employed during any communication exercise the greater the effectiveness of such communication, the use of instructional material aim at increasing the employment of the sense of any communication or teaching exercise to promote effective understanding of the message that is being communicated.
There is a powerful range of instructional material to the teachers, ranging from models, radio, books display materials, well charts television programmes flannel board, diagrams, chalk board, video tape recorders and so on.
Instructional material can enable the pupils to get the real picture of thing that teacher can ever describe. This makes the learning experience more readily understood to the pupils to work on their own that is to be self-independent 
It can be classified into three categories such as audio visual material, reading materials and community resource source.
Audio visual:- these are aids which can be seen and head e.g film television, video cassettes, video tapes
Visual:- these are aids which can be seen but not heard e.g picture, diagram, maps and charts.
Audio:-These are the materials which can be hear but not seen for example, voices from radio, audio tapes.
Reading Material:- Are those materials that we can read such as magazine, newspapers and text books
Community Resource:-Are the resources which can be easily get in the town, country, community or in an environment where the school as situated or where the learning take place.
Instructional materials must be portable. They must be appropriate and suitable. The teacher must first identify the objectives he has set for the particular lesson. Since this will determine what materials are to be used and how they should be used before deciding which aids to use.
In any educational setting, teaching and learning go on simultaneously, there are learners in between them and constitutes the most important element in effective learning and teaching, studies have shown that such what we and know are required through all the sense but the most one that can make teaching and learning be effective in class are sight and hearing it also encourages communication and consequently productive teaching and learning devices. These devices are often referred to as learning and instructional materials.
This is a large variety of instructional materials that can be used effectively in learning situation.
Some of them are costly example is language laboratory which others moderate in price and easily affordable as well as useful to the teachers examples Tape recorders, charts, sides, and so on.
Also instructional materials enables the teacher to acquired new ideas and techniques to make teaching more effective and to achieve the desired goals by the teacher, more importantly the teacher should know how to select adequate instructional materials and how are always the best ones.
Historically man made use of certain stone, implement and symbols to guide his day to day activities. The Egyptian picture writing is important, the early man use of symbols and drawing to communication ideas. These drawing and symbols served as audio-visual during the pre-historic era 
Fasine(2004) in Knapp and Leonhard(1988) conceived audio visual materials as a wide range of instructional materials designed to provide realistic imaginary and sub-statute experience in order to enrich curriculum experience of mankind’s.
Globes and ancient maps are used for teaching the movement of the sun and they are first formal educations devices. They globes was said to have been made by men who constructed the pyramid of Cheops in the fourth dynasty.
The Abacus is one of the person that make few about ancient computing and teaching devices for nonverbal learning that has persisted in modern time as nearly original form.
The also few the component of book with improvement of result as the overall communication pattern (AECT1977).
The classroom use for instructional media in schools were not fully materialist. The most important commonly used by that time were chalk board and chalks. Ojo(2003) in 1920 marked improvement have been made in the methods of instructional available to be teacher. Many instructional were developed for non-verbal instruction such as charts, teaching machines and other graphic in Nigeria media education because effective and functional after independence.
Fasina(2004) in Ogunmilade(1984) said that Western Nigeria Ministry Of Education opened its audio-visual centers for the schools bread case. And federal adviser of education made an history on the use of instructional materials in Nigeria schools.
Therefore with this development, those were the establishment of various centers in many of the state’s ministries of education. The media centers catered for the application of educational Technology to the teaching and learning process by providing instructional materials seminars and workshops individual’s state. This contributed greatly to effective use of materials in school.
This is a fine instrument for teaching number combination of visual in term of space subject relationship as well as a highly efficient calculating device.
Fasina(2003) in back man(1846) made first museum of education materials in Greek media collection that was supposed to have used for self-education as the training laboratory with it special devices represents significant means for communication non-verbal experience and knowledge to the pupils 
The challenge of audio-visual education nowadays involve the use of Television and motion picture which do not only constitute a new and important techniques in their own right but also serve as means of utilizing all other forms of audio-visual instructions.
Motion picture were developed by Back man in the nineteenth century for education by breaking down Barriers, between the classroom and outside world of experience and action. The development of photography modifies technique of book illustration and this leads to the accommodation of photographs in the book. The pictorial technique development have provided greater flexibility of the non-verbal of instructional materials from the western state.
 According to the(200) more  over between 1979 and 1980 the audio visual section acquired the learnt equipment such as firm projectors, tape recorder, models side, projectors, overhead projectors, educational film and sides.
Finally, it’s certain that instructional materials are very essential in teaching learning process.
In the light of what I have mentioned above, I hope that this study will shed more light on the impact of instructional materials on the teaching and learning situation.

The purpose of this study is to find out the impact of instructional materials on teaching and learning of social study in some selected primary schools. A case study of Ila-Orangun Local Government Ila-Orangun.
In carrying out this research the following question were gives a prides of place in other to group the resources to an effective research works.
What are the possible impact of instructional materials in teaching and learning of social study 
Does the use of instructional materials have any impact in the school curriculum
Does the use of instructional material such as audio visual aids widen the opportunity of the pupils 
Does instructional materials such as visual aids widen the opportunity of the pupils
Does the use of instructional media has any impact on methods of teaching s
Will the use of different instructional materials encourage development of the positive behavior by introducing pupils to teaching of social study.

The growth of technology in the country makes children from the beginning to learn through the mass media designed for entertainment and dissemination of the information. These media are used for instructional purpose to train the children through the three educational domains in the cognitive, effective and psychomotor domains.
Instructional materials are needed for various and specific purpose in teaching and learning of said study.
It equip the pupils to live effective in our modern age of science and technology.
It stimulators the learners interest to learn quickly and creatively for immediate understanding.
Instructional materials encourages teacher in curriculum designing and development for effective lesson planning from objective determination and evaluations.
It makes learners to know his ability and learning becomes permanent.
It makes learning to be real and immediate through instructional media utilization. Also rote learning discouraged by using instructional materials. This implies that the gaps between the oretical study and practical world is bridge 
Finally, instructional materials make the learning to be effectively meaningful.

The scope of this study will be limited to five schools selected from Ila Local Government. Out of twenty villages and towns that constituted Ila Local Government Area, three villages have primary schools.
Therefore the selected school are community primary school, A.U.D Primary school, Baptist primary school, St. Mathew primary school, aud 1 primary school. All in Ila Local Government.

The nature of this topic itself has made it a little difficult, firstly examine the impact of instructional materials is a great task many teacher did respond to questionnaire in way to cover up the area impact there is an extent to which research work could be generalized.
The fact that questionnaires were administered on teacher themselves to examine the impact awakened some censoriousness in them and so respond to the questionnaire mindful of its possible implication.
This has placed another limitation on only concrete generalization. Since, not all, however picked through the choice of the school which were made on district base in Ila Local Government area.

What are the impact of instructional materials on the teaching and learning of social studies in primary?
Does the government or school authority provide adequate instructional aids for social studies in primary school?
What are the negative impact of instructional aid on the teaching and learning of social studies 
Does the school management keep and maintain the instructional aids properly.

The following terms are used in the study and they are defined below.
Instructional Materials:- it includes all form of information caries that can be used to promote and encourage, materials are text-books, workbooks, charts bulletin board, flannel graph and so on.
Mass Media:-  the various ways of passing or dissemination to the large number of people example of mass media include radio, television, newspaper and so on.
Reading Materials:- Are those material that are we can read such as magazine, newspaper and textbook.
Community Resources:- Are the resources which are easily get in the town, country and community or in environment where the school is situated or where the learning takes place.



Steven Wagner, a top official with the Department of Health and Human Services, disclosed the number to a Senate subcommittee last month while discussing the state of the Office of Refugee Resettlement (ORR) that oversees the care of unaccompanied immigrant children. The federal government has placed thousands of unaccompanied immigrant children in the homes of sponsors, but last year it couldn't account for nearly 1,500 of them.

After a stay in an ORR shelter, the majority of children are sent to live with sponsors who have close ties to the children -- typically a parent or close relative, Wagner said, though some end up living with "other-than-close relatives or non-relatives, I understand that it has been HHS's long-standing interpretation of the law that ORR is not legally responsible for children after they are released from ORR care," Wagner said.


Congratulations to Real Madrid, [it's] not to forget they won the Champions League. Of course it was a big moment in the game," the German told a news conference.

"I know if you say something like that after a game you lost, it sounds like you are a little bit a bad loser but it was, for me, kind of a harsh challenge. "It's like wrestling a little bit and it's unlucky then that Mo fell on his shoulder."

Salah came off in tears half an hour into Liverpool's 3-1 loss to Real Madrid in Kiev on Saturday after hurting his shoulder under a challenge from Ramos, who later wished the Egypt international a speedy recovery.

Liverpool manager Jurgen Klopp compared Sergio Ramos' challenge on Mohamed Salah that injured the star attacker in the Champions League final to wrestling.

Salah came off in tears half an hour into Liverpool's 3-1 loss to Real Madrid in Kiev on Saturday after hurting his shoulder under a challenge from Ramos, who later wished the Egypt international a speedy recovery. Klopp was unhappy with the tangle, which the Egyptian Football Association said had left Salah with ligament damage in his shoulder.